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CHAPTER XIV

THE BEAST OF REVELATION 17

Written By
S.R. Shearer

"And he cried mightily with a strong voice, saying Babylon the great is fallen, is fallen, and is become the habitation of devils, and the hold of every foul spirit, and a cage of every unclean and hateful bird." (Rev. 18:2)

Section I

In Search of Babylon

THE ANCIENT CITY

The ancient city of Babylon grew in size and importance from the days of Nimrod (Gen. 10:10) until it reached its greatest glory in the reign of Nebuchadnezzar [B.C. 604-562]. As described by Horodotus, it was an exact square of some 15 miles on a side, or 60 miles around, and was surrounded by a brick wall 87 feet thick and 350 feet high, though probably that is a mistake, 100 feet being nearer the height. On the wall were 250 towers, and the top of the wall was wide enough to allow six chariots to drive abreast. Outside the wall was a vast moat surrounding the city, kept filled with water from the river Euphrates; and inside the wall, and not far from it, was another wall extending around the city.

Twenty-five magnificent avenues, 150 feet wide, ran across the city from north to south, and the same number crossed them at right angles from east to west, making 676 great squares, each nearly 3/5 of a mile on a side. The city was divided into two equal parts by the river Euphrates, that flowed diagonally through it, and whose banks within the city were walled up and pierced with brazen gates with steps leading down to the river. At the ends of the main avenues, on each side of the city, were gates, whose leaves of brass shone as they opened or closed in the rising or setting sun like "leaves of flame."

The Euphrates within the city was spanned by a bridge, at each side of which was a palace, and these palaces were connected by a subterranean passageway underneath the bed of the river, in which at different points were located sumptuous banqueting rooms constructed entirely of brass. Near one of these palaces stood the "Tower of Bel" or Babel, consisting of eight towers, each 75 feet high, rising one upon the other, with an outside winding stairway to its summit, which towers with the chapel on the top, made a height of 660 feet. The chapel itself, which was lavishly furnished, could be reckoned in today's dollars as approaching $1,000,000,000.00.

The "Hanging Gardens" of Babylon were renowned as one of the wonders of the Ancient World. These gardens were 400 feet square and were raised in terraces one above the other to a height of 350 feet. The topmost terrace was reached by staircases 19 feet wide. The top of each terrace was covered with large stones, on which was laid a bed of rushes, then a thick layer of asphalt, next, two courses of bricks cemented together, and finally, plates of lead to prevent leakage; it was then covered with earth and planted with shrubbery and large trees. The whole had the appearance from a distance of a forest covered mountain which was a very remarkable sight in the level plain of the Euphrates.

Babylon was probably the most magnificent city the world has ever seen; "poor" Jerusalem was but a small, provincial and tacky village in comparison! Babylon the Great - that "Great City" (Rev. 18:2); Jerusalem, the "Holy City," (Rev. 21:10) - "small and compact" (Psalm 122:3).

BABYLON:
A MYSTERY WRAPPED
IN AN ENIGMA

And what about Prophetic Babylon? It will, of course, be every bit as magnificent!

Before we set out on our hunt for this great city, however, let's deal with one of the biggest stumbling blocks to any search: the thought that "Prophetic Babylon" has anything at all to do with the ancient city or that the verses which deal with this prophecy (i.e., Revelation 17 and 18; Isaiah chapters 13 and 14, and Jeremiah chapters 50 and 51) were fulfilled when Cyrus took Babylon in B.C. 541.

As strange as it might seem, there are some who insist that the prophecies concerning "Babylon" (again - Revelation 17 and 18, Isaiah chapters 13 and 14, and Jeremiah chapters 50 and 51) were fulfilled when the Medo-Persians captured Babylon in 541 B.C. - and that these verses have, therefore, nothing to do with events yet future. But there is too much in these chapters which were not accomplished when Cyrus took the ancient city of Babylon. For example, both the prophecies of Jeremiah and Isaiah, like those of the Revelation, indicate that Babylon [Prophetic Babylon] is to be destroyed suddenly and catastrophically - "in one short hour," NEVER TO BE INHABITED AGAIN!! But when Cyrus took the city in B.C. 541, he took it so quietly and with such little commotion that some of the inhabitants did not know until the third day that Belshazzar had been slain and the city taken.

Some years later, it revolted against Darius Hystaspis, and in B.C. 478 Xerxes took the city and plundered it. But he did not destroy it. In B.C. 331, Alexander the Great prepared to lay siege to the once again thriving and powerful city, but the citizens threw open the gates and received him with acclamation. During the subsequent wars of his generals, Babylon suffered much and was finally brought under the power of Seleucis. In B.C. 293 Seleucis founded Seleucia in the neighborhood of Babylon, and the rival city gradually drew off a large portion of Babylon's inhabitants so that by A.D. 15, Strabo spoke of the city as being largely deserted.

Nevertheless, there still existed within the city a large Jewish population left over from the "Captivity." Indeed, we find that the Apostle Peter wrote his First Epistle from Babylon in A.D. 60 (I Peter 5:13). About the middle of the Fifth Century, Theodoret spoke of Babylon as being inhabited only by Jews who still had three Jewish schools or "Yeshivas" there. In the last year of the same century, the Talmud was issued from Babylon and accepted as authoritative by Jews throughout the world.

In A.D. 917 Ibu Hankel mentioned Babylon as still being in existence, and by A.D. 1100 it had again grown into a city of some importance. Shortly afterwards, it was enlarged, fortified and renamed "Hillah." In 1898, Hillah contained about 10,000 inhabitants and was surrounded by fertile lands and beautiful groves which stretched along the Euphrates River.

During this entire period (B.C. 541 - A.D. 1996) it could never be said that "neither shall the Arabian pitch tent there, neither shall shepherds make their fold there" (Isa. 13:20). Nor could it be said of Babylon - "Her cities are a desolation, a dry land, and a wilderness, a land WHEREIN NO MAN DWELLETH, neither doeth any son of man pass thereby." (Jer. 51:43). Nor could it be said, "... and they shall not take of thee a stone for a corner, nor a stone for foundations, but thou shalt be desolate forever, saith the Lord" (Jer. 51:26), for many towns and cities have been built from the ruins of Babylon - Seleucia by the Greeks, Ctesiphone by the Parthians, Al Maiden by the Persians, and Kufa by the Caliphs. Indeed, in Baghdad today (the capital of modern Iraq) Babylonian stamped bricks may be frequently noticed.

But Isaiah is still more specific, for he locates the time when his prophecy will be fulfilled. He calls it the "DAY OF THE LORD" (Isa. 13:9) - that is to say, at the end of the "Great Tribulation." Moreover, he says that when Babylon is destroyed, "The stars of heaven and the constellations thereof shall not give their light; the sun shall be darkened in his going forth, and the moon shall not cause her light to shine" (Isa. 13:19; see also Luke 21:25-27). Surely nothing like this happened when Cyrus took Babylon in B.C. 541.

In the description of the destruction of the city of Babylon given in Revelation 18, we are told that Babylon's destruction will be accomplished in "ONE HOUR" (verse 19). Again - this is certainly not the description of events which surrounded Cyrus's taking of the city. In addition, we are told in the same chapter that she is to be destroyed by fire (Rev. 18:8-9, 18) and this is in exact harmony with the words of Isaiah 13:19 and Jeremiah 50:40. Moreover, in Revelation 16:17-19, we are told that an earthquake will shake the city at the time of its destruction. No such earthquake ever shook the city when Cyrus took it in B.C. 541.

Obviously, then, the Babylon that is described in Isaiah 13 and 14, Jeremiah 50 and 51 and in the Revelation is not the ancient city of Babylon, but some great "latter-day" nation which by means of its enormous military and economic might will establish its ascendancy over the world.

Lastly, there are those who insist that the prophecies which deal with Babylon refer to modern-day Iraq. Indeed, prior to the Gulf War, countless numbers of fundamentalist Christians could be found who were predicting doom for America in its confrontation with Iraq over Kuwait. Such thinking, of course, was moronic - U.S. forces sliced through Iraq like a knife through butter, revealing in the process more about the real identity of Prophetic Babylon than most American Christians were (are) prepared to admit.

BABYLON THE GREAT

In Scripture, Babylon represents the kingdom and glory of Satan (Rev. 17:1-8); Jerusalem is the city of the Living God (Rev. 12:22).

Satan is called the "Prince of this World" (John 12:31; 14:30; 16:11) over which sits Babylon, the city of Satan. What is meant by the term "world?" The word "world" is the translation of the Greek word "kosmos," which means an harmonious order or arrangement, and it is used in three ways in the New Testament:

  1. First, it means the MATERIAL UNIVERSE (Acts 17:14; Matt. 13:35; John 1:10; Mark 16:15).
  2. Second, it means -
    1. THE INHABITANTS OF THE WORLD as whole (John 1:10; 3:16; 12:19; 17:21);
    2. THE WHOLE RACE OF MAN ALIENATED FROM GOD AND HOSTILE TO THE CAUSE OF CHRIST (Heb. 11:38; John 14:17; 14:27; 15:18); this is but an extension of (a) above and is the meaning we are most concerned with here.
  3. Third, it means the whole circle of WORLDLY goods, endowments, riches, advantages, pleasures, which though hollow and fleeting, stir our desires and seduce us from God, so that they are obstacles to the cause of Christ (I John 3:17; Matt. 16:26; I Cor 2:12; 3:19, 7:31; Titus 2:12; II Peter 1:4; 2:20; I John 2:15-17; James 1:27). It is the world of our split level homes, two cars, good careers, good educations, bank accounts, vacations, etc. It is when these pleasures and even so-called necessities of life "possess our hearts" and crowd out our commitment to the Lord and to His people that they have in reality become part of the kosmos.

Moreover, the word kosmos, taken in conjunction with the three meanings described above, implies that behind all this there is a mind - the Prince of this World - which gives order and arrangement to it all. John says:

"The whole KOSMOS [as described above] lieth in the evil one." (John 5:19)

He is the KOSMOKRATER or world-ruler - a word which, however, appears only once, and is used in the plural of his lieutenants: "the WORLD RULERS OF THIS DARKNESS" (Eph. 6:12).

Politics, education, literature, science, art, law, commerce, music, our homes, careers, etc. - together they constitute the "kosmos." Subtract them, and the world as a coherent system ceases to exist. It is the development of these things that constitutes history. The question is, which direction is history tending? What is its ultimate goal? - BABYLON THE GREAT, the masterpiece of Satan!! That is the direction of the world's advance - the kingdom of Antichrist, and we are only seconds away as God's prophetic clock winds down.

The world [kosmos] is Satan's grand creation and he has directed all his strength and ingenuity into causing it to flourish. To what end? To capture man's allegiance and draw him to himself. He has one object - to establish his own dominion in human hearts worldwide! Babylon is the centerpiece, the pinnacle of his great design.

COMMERCE

Commerce is at the heart of Babylon! It is at the heart of Satan:

"The word of the Lord came again unto me, saying...
"Now, thou son of man, take up a lamentation for Tyrus [Satan],
"And say unto Tyrus, O thou that are situate (situated) at the entry ["midst" - is the more accurate translation] of the sea, which are a MERCHANT of the people ... [the traders of the earth] have made thy beauty perfect.
"Tarshish [the trading nations] ... traded in thy fairs.
"Son of man, say unto the Prince of Tyrus, Thus saith the Lord God, because thine heart is lifted up and thou hast said, I am a god, I sit in the seat of God IN THE MIDST OF THE SEAS ...
"By thy great wisdom and by thy traffic [commerce] thou hast increased thy riches, and thine heart is lifted up because of thy riches:
"By the multitudes of thy merchandise they have filled ... thee with violence, and thou hast sinned: ...
"Thou hast defiled thy sanctuaries by ... the iniquity of thy traffic [commerce] ..." (Ezek. 27:1-3, 12; 28:2, 5,16, 18).

[Concerning the identity of this personage (i.e., the "King of Tyrus"), almost all evangelical scholars are in agreement that what the Scriptures have in mind here is Satan. Pember writes: "... the lamentation upon the King of Tyrus ... cannot be applied to any mortal ... To adopt the too common plan of explaining these (verses) away as mere figures of speech, is to trifle with the Word of God. We have no right to use so dishonest a method of extricating ourselves from difficulties, a method which enables men to deduce almost any desired meaning from a passage, and makes the whole Bible an enigma instead of a disclosure ...1 (Please see Pember, Earth's Earliest Ages {pgs. 45-49} for a detailed treatment as to the identification of Tyrus as Satan {antichrist}.]

At the heart of commerce is money. Money is addictive and all too often leads the possessor of it into unrighteousness. The Word of God speaks of "the mammon of unrighteousness" (Luke 16:9). The corruption which results from the "love of money" and the things which it can buy, invariably leads away from God.

Paul writes:

"They that desire to be rich fall into a temptation and snare and many foolish and hurtful lusts, such as drown men in destruction and perdition. "For the love of money is the root of all evil: which some reaching after, have been led astray ... and have pierced themselves through with many sorrows." (I Tim. 6:9-10)

THE TIMES OF THE GENTILES

With all this in mind, let's now begin our quest in earnest. We will use as our principle guide the best evangelical review on the subject - Things To Come, by J. Dwight Pentecost of Dallas Theological Seminary. In doing so, we will gradually paint a picture of "Prophetic Babylon" and let the reader draw his own conclusions. We will also carefully note all of our sources. We will begin with a discussion and explanation of the "Times of the Gentiles." Why? Because Prophetic Babylon is to be the culmination of the full development of Gentile world power - its final and complete fulfillment.

In Luke 21:24, Jesus said:

"Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled." (Luke 21:24)

This time period - the "Times of the Gentiles" - is one of the most important time periods in the prophetic Scriptures. It is to be a period of time in which Jerusalem is to be under the dominion of Gentile world power. This period began with the Babylonian captivity when Jerusalem fell into the hands of the Gentiles, and as J. Dwight Pentecost writes:

"... it has continued unto the present time and well continue through the Tribulation period, in which era the Gentile powers will be judged. The dominion of the Gentiles [will] end at the second advent of Messiah to the earth." 2

In other words, the "Times of the Gentiles" will end at the second coming of the Lord in glory. While there are some who contend that the "Times of the Gentiles" ended in 1967 when Israel retook the City of Jerusalem, most evangelicals reject this thesis because the present Israeli occupation of Jerusalem is destined to be cut short when the Gentiles will once again wrest the city from the Jews for 1,260 days (3-1/2 years) shortly after the Abomination of Desolation during the Tribulation. (Rev. 11:2)

Scofield defines the time limits thus:

"The times of the Gentiles is that long period beginning with Babylonian captivity of Judah under Nebuchadnezzar, and [which is] to be brought to an end by the destruction of Gentile world power ... [at] the coming of the Lord in glory." (Dan. 2:34, 35, 44 and Rev. 19:11, 21)3

Scofield, then agrees with Pentecost - the "Times of the Gentiles" will end at the second coming. The fullest description of the period is given to us in Daniel. Edward Dennett writes:

"What we have in Daniel is ... the course and character of Gentile power, from the destruction of Jerusalem [under Nebuchadnezzar] on to the appearing of Christ, together with the position of the remnant and the sufferings of the Jewish people, while the Gentiles possess the dominion, until at last God, in His faithfulness in pursuance of His purposes, interposes, and for His own glory, works for the rescue of His elect EARTHLY people (i.e., the Jews)."4

THE GREAT IMAGE

The first prophetic outline of the course of this period - the "Times of the Gentiles" - is given in Daniel 2, where, through the medium of the "great image," the successive empires that would exercise Gentile dominion over Jerusalem are outlined. [The term "empire" as used here is better understood as "civilization;" the English word "empire" implies mere political or military unity, while Daniel has in mind a unity of far greater dimensions than what the word "empire" denotes - a unity which embraces a common culture, law, science, social structure, religion, etc., and is best expressed in the English language by the word "civilization."]

The book of Daniel reads:

THE VISION OF THE GREAT IMAGE

"And in the second year of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar, Nebuchadnezzar dreamed dreams, wherewith his spirit was troubled, and his sleep brake from him.
"Then the king commanded to call the magicians, and the astrologers, and the sorcerers, and the Chaldeans, for to show the king his dreams. So they came and stood before the king.
"And the king said unto them, I have dreamed a dream, and my spirit was troubled to know the dream.
"The king answered and said to the Chaldeans, The thing is gone from me: if ye will not make known unto me the dream, with the interpretation thereof, ye shall be cut in pieces, and your houses shall be made a dunghill.
"The Chaldeans answered before the king, and said, There is not a man upon the earth that can show the king's matter: therefore there is no king, lord, nor ruler, that asked such things of any magician, or astrologer, or Chaldean.
"Then Daniel answered with counsel and wisdom to Arioch the captain of the king's guard, which was gone forth to slay the wise men of Babylon:
"Then was the secret revealed unto Daniel in a night vision. Then Daniel blessed the God of heaven.
"Daniel answered and said, Blessed be the name of God for ever and ever: for wisdom and might are his:
"And he changeth the times and the seasons: he removeth kings, and setteth up kings: he giveth wisdom unto the wise, and knowledge to them that know understanding:
"He revealeth the deep and secret things: he knoweth what is in the darkness, and the light dwelleth with him.
"The king answered and said to Daniel, whose name was Belteshazzar, Art thou able to make known unto me the dream which I have seen, and the interpretation thereof?
"Daniel answered in the presence of the king, and said, The secret which the king hath demanded cannot the wise men, the astrologers, the magicians, the soothsayers, show unto the king;
"But there is a God in heaven that revealeth secrets, and maketh known to the king Nebuchadnezzar what shall be in the latter days. Thy dream, and the visions of thy head upon thy bed, are these;
"Thou, O king, sawest, and behold a great image. This great image, whose brightness was excellent, stood before thee; and the form thereof was terrible.
"This image's head was of fine gold, his breast and his arms of silver, his belly and his thighs of brass,
"His legs of iron, his feet part of iron and part of clay.
"Thou sawest till that a stone was cut out without hands, which smote the image upon his feet that were of iron and clay, and brake them to pieces.
"Then was the iron, the clay, the brass, the silver, and the gold, broken to pieces together, and became like the chaff of the summer threshingfloors; and the wind carried them away, that no place was found for them: and the stone that smote the image became a great mountain, and filled the whole earth.
"This is the dream; and we will tell the interpretation thereof before the king.
"Thou, O king, art a king of kings: for the God of heaven hath given thee a kingdom, power, and strength, and glory." And wheresoever the children of men dwell, the beasts of the field and the fowls of the heaven hath he given into thine hand, and hath made thee ruler over them all. Thou art this head of gold.
"And after thee shall arise another kingdom inferior to thee, and another third kingdom of brass, which shall bear rule over all the earth.
"And the fourth kingdom shall be strong as iron: forasmuch as iron breaketh in pieces and subdueth all things: and as iron that breaketh all these, shall it break in pieces and bruise.
"And whereas thou sawest the feet and toes, part of potters' clay, and part of iron, the kingdom (i.e., the fourth kingdom, the kingdom of iron) shall be divided; but there shall be in it of the strength of the iron, forasmuch as thou sawest the iron mixed with miry clay.
"And as the toes of the feet were part of iron, and part of clay, so the kingdom shall be partly strong, and partly broken.
"And whereas thou sawest iron mixed with miry clay, they shall mingle themselves with the seed of men: but they shall not cleave one to another, even as iron is not mixed with clay.
"And in the days of these kings shall the God of heaven set up a kingdom, which shall never be destroyed: and the kingdom shall not be left to other people, but it shall break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms, and it shall stand for ever.
"Forasmuch as thou sawest that the stone was cut out of the mountain without hands, and that it brake in pieces the iron, the brass, the clay, the silver, and the gold; the great God hath made known to the king what shall come to pass hereafter: and the dream is certain, and the interpretation thereof sure." (Dan. 2:1-3, 5, 10, 14, 19-22, 26-28, 31-45)

Lewis Sperry Chaffer, founder and first President of Dallas Theological Seminary, elaborates on these verses:

"Five world dominions in their succession are foreseen ... FOUR of these are represented by the portions of the image and the fifth as that which will arise upon the wreckage of the four ... [after] the judgments of God fall ... . The first, [Ancient] Babylon as the head of gold, was already at the zenith of its powers when Daniel gave his interpretation. The second was Media-Persia in which kingdom also Daniel lived to share. The third dominion was Greece under Alexander, and the fourth was Rome, which was in its fullest development in the day that Christ was here on earth. It is this iron kingdom which merges in its final form [still as the fourth great Gentile world kingdom] into feet of iron and clay. It is in this time of the feet of iron and clay [of the fourth world kingdom] that the "Smiting Stone" [as the Fifth Kingdom - the Kingdom of Christ] strikes [and shatters the image - that is to say, Gentile world power]." 5

THE FOUR WILD BEASTS

The second prophetic outline of the course of this period is given in Daniel 7. Whereas in Daniel 2, the course of world empire is viewed from man's perspective, in Daniel 7, the same course of world empire is viewed from the Divine viewpoint, where the Gentile empires are seen not as an attractive image, but as four wild, voracious beasts, which devour and destroy all before them and, consequently, are worthy of judgment.

The Book of Daniel reads:

THE VISION OF THE FOUR WILD BEASTS

"In the first year of Belshazzar king of Babylon Daniel had a dream and visions of his head upon his bed: then he wrote the dream, and told the sum of the matters.
"Daniel spake and said, I saw in my vision by night, and, behold, the four winds of the heaven strove upon the great sea.
"And four great beasts came up from the sea, diverse one from another.
"The first was like a lion, and had eagle's wings: I beheld till the wings thereof were plucked, and it was lifted up from the earth, and made stand upon the feet as a man, and a man's heart was given to it.
"And behold another beast, a second, like to a bear, and it raised up itself on one side, and it had three ribs in the mouth of it between the teeth of it: and they said thus unto it, Arise, devour much flesh.
"After this I beheld, and lo another, like a leopard, which had upon the back of it four wings of a fowl; the beast had also four heads; and dominion was given to it.
"After this I saw in the night visions, and behold a fourth beast, dreadful and terrible, and strong exceedingly; and it had great iron teeth: it devoured and brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with the feet of it: and it was diverse from all the beasts that were before it; and it had ten horns.
"I considered the horns, and, behold, there came up among them another little horn, before whom there were three of the first horns plucked up by the roots: and, behold, in this horn were eyes like the eyes of man, and a mouth speaking great things.
"I beheld till the thrones were cast down, and the Ancient of days did sit, whose garment was white as snow, and the hair of his head like the pure wool: his throne was like the fiery flame, and his wheels as burning fire.
"A fiery stream issued and came forth from before him: thousand thousands ministered unto him, and ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him: the judgment was set, and the books were opened.
"I beheld then because of the voice of the great words which the horn spake: I beheld even till the beast was slain, and his body destroyed, and given to the burning flame.
"As concerning the rest of the beasts, they had their dominion taken away: yet their lives were prolonged for a season and time.
"I saw in the night visions, and, behold, one like the Son of man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of days, and they brought him near before him.
"And there was given him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all people, nations, and languages, should serve him: his dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed.
"I Daniel was grieved in my spirit in the midst of my body, and the visions of my head troubled me. I came near unto one of them that stood by, and asked him the truth of all this. So he told me, and made me know the interpretation of the things.
"These great beasts, which are four, are four kings, which shall arise out of the earth.
"But the saints of the most High shall take the kingdom, and possess the kingdom for ever, even for ever and ever.
"Then I would know the truth of the fourth beast, which was diverse from all the others, exceeding dreadful, whose teeth were of iron, and his nails of brass; which devoured, brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with his feet;
"And of the ten horns that were in his head, and of the other which came up, and before whom three fell; even of that horn that had eyes, and a mouth that spake very great things, whose look was more stout than his fellows.
"I beheld, and the same horn made war with the saints, and prevailed against them;
"Until the Ancient of days came, and judgment was given to the saints of the most High; and the time came that the saints possessed the kingdom.
"Thus he said, The fourth beast shall be the fourth kingdom upon earth, which shall be diverse from all kingdoms, and shall devour the whole earth, and shall tread it down, and break it in pieces.
"And the ten horns out of this kingdom are ten kings that shall arise: and another shall rise after them; and he shall be diverse from the first, and he shall subdue three kings.
"And he shall speak great words against the most High, and shall wear out the saints of the most High, and think to change times and laws: and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and the dividing of time.
"But the judgment shall sit, and they shall take away his dominion, to consume and to destroy it unto the end.
"And the kingdom and dominion, and the greatness of the kingdom under the whole heaven, shall be given to the people of the saints of the most High, whose kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions shall serve and obey him.
"Hitherto is the end of the matter. As for me Daniel, my cogitations much troubled me, and my countenance changed in me: but I kept the matter in my heart. (Daniel 7:1-28)

Arno C. Gaebelein explains this passage as follows:

"The gold in the dream image, and the first beast represent the [ancient] Babylonian empire. In the beginning it was a lion with wings, but they were plucked out; it lost its strength and though it had a man's heart it was a beast still ... The bear stands for the Medo-Persian empire, the empire seen as of silver, the chest and arms. One paw is lifted up, because the Persian element was stronger than that of the Medes. The bear had three ribs in its mouth because Susiana, Lydia, and Asia Minor had been conquered by this power. The leopard, with four wings and four heads, is the picture of the Graeco-Macedonian empire, corresponding to the thighs of brass in the image of Nebuchadnezzar. The four wings denote swiftness, the four heads the partition of this empire into the kingdom of Syria, Egypt, Macedonia, and Asia Minor ... we call attention to the fact that in the selection of beasts to represent these world powers who domineer the "Times of the Gentile," God tells us that their moral character is BEASTLY. The lion devours, the bear crushes, the leopard springs upon its prey ... then we have the fourth world empire, the iron one, ROME. It is described in a way as none of the others are. It is dreadful, terrible, exceeding strong; it has great iron teeth. It devours, breaks in pieces and stamps down. It has ten horns [which correspond to the ten - toes of the image] AND IN THEIR MIDST RISES UP A LITTLE ["YOUNGER" OR "HINDERMOST"] HORN ..." 6

Thus, the Scriptures reveal that from the time of Daniel until the time when Jerusalem shall be given freedom [ON A PERMANENT BASIS] from Gentile dominion at the second advent of Christ, there will be four great empires which shall rise and fall. The period of Tribulation [the last seven years of the Times of the Gentiles] ... [will] be the final epoch in the development (of this period). 7

THE FINAL FORM OF GENTILE
WORLD POWER: WESTERN CIVILIZATION

There are several important passages of Scripture which have an important bearing on the question of the final form of Gentile world power. In the descriptions of the "Times of the Gentiles" given in Daniel 2, the prophet deals in a general way with the four successive empires which will in their turn possess world power. But he becomes quite specific with the end of that power. In Daniel 2:40-44, the final form of Gentile power is described.

Pentecost writes:

"... the final form of Gentile power [is described as follows]:

  1. "The ... form of ... [this power] is an outgrowth from and final development of the fourth great empire, the ROMAN. This final form is represented by the ten toes [and the ten horns], (Dan. 2:41-42, see also Dan. 7.)
  2. "The final form of this power is marked by division ...
  3. "The final form of Gentile power is marked by a federation [of that power], since the mixture of the iron and clay [in the feet of the image] is an unnatural one, it would seem to suggest that the federation is not brought about by force, else this condition would not continue. But it is brought about by mutual consent, so that each member in the alliance retains its own identity. This is in harmony with Revelation 17:13."8

Now we come to a very important point. Four great world empires [civilizations] of Gentile origin are spoken of by the Prophet Daniel - four and only four! - the ten toes of the image being only the final form of the last great empire - ROME. There is no interruption here in the continuity of the fourth great empire and the imagery used does not picture the death of the fourth empire and its later resurrection - but it speaks of one continuous empire up through time from Christ to the present.

Yet, it is commonly assumed by the layman that Rome collapsed in 476 A.D. - never to rise again. But Roman civilization itself never collapsed and has continued to this day. It is what we today call "Western Civilization" - a term familiar to any college student - and a term which denotes European Civilization, that is to say, that civilization which derives it force and origin from Ancient Rome. Thus, while it is true that the POLITICAL unity of "the one-world that was Rome's" - of Roman Civilization - was lost in 476 A.D., the civilization of Rome itself has survived to become the dominant civilization of this planet - directly holding sway over Western Europe and North America and holding limited sway over Central and South America, Africa, and to a lesser extent, even Asia.

In this connection, it is important to note that Western Civilization is to be differentiated from the native civilization of China, Japan, India, Africa, and Central and South America. These are civilizations of totally different origins and it is these very civilizations that Western Civilization has come to dominate to a greater or lesser degree, directly or indirectly. The science, technology, literature, law, culture, religion, and languages [especially English, and to a lesser extent, Spanish and French] of this great civilization dominates the earth as no prior civilization has ever done, and all this in spite of the fact that there has been no political unity within the confines of this civilization for some 1500 years. The political unity of this great civilization has remained profoundly elusive and ethereal - always just out of reach of those who so ardently sought it - Charlemagne, Louis XIV, Napoleon, and even Hitler. Each failed in his turn. AND THIS IS EXACTLY THE CONDITION OF THINGS PROPHESIED BY DANIEL. Thus, the outline of the history of the Western World is best understood as a civilization which, while having lost its political unity in 476 A.D., has continued as a dynamic, powerful, and culturally unified civilization to this very day.

This is the view of Pentecost. Pentecost writes:

"It would seem best to view this Roman Empire as a continuous development from its original or initial form at the time of Christ until its final form at the second coming of Christ." 9

G.N.H. Peters echoes the view of Pentecost:

"It may seem a hard saying, but it is one which the facts fully bear out ... that the one key to the whole subject [of the history of Western Civilization] - without which medieval history is simply an unintelligible chaos - is no other than THE CONTINUED EXISTENCE OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE [in the form of Western Civilization]. As long as people are taught that the Empire came to an end in the year 476, a true understanding of the next one thousand years becomes utterly impossible. No one can understand either the politics or the literature of that whole period unless he constantly bears in mind that in the ideas of the men of those days, the Roman Empire, the Empire of Augustus, Constantine, and Justinian, was not a thing of the past, but a thing of the present." 10

[IN THIS CONNECTION, IT IS EXTREMELY IMPORTANT TO UNDERSTAND THAT THE CIVILIZATION FINALLY BEQUEATHED BY ANCIENT ROME TO THE WESTERN WORLD WAS NOT THE "PAGAN" ROME OF CICERO, NERO, AND CALIGULA, BUT THE "CHRISTIAN" ROME OF CONSTANTINE - A ROME THAT INCLUDED AS AN INTEGRAL PART OF IT AN APOSTATE FORM OF CHRISTIANITY IN THE FIGURE OF THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH. The touchstone to Roman Catholicism was the integration of the Church with the Roman State. This is the antithesis to all that the Church was meant to be - a HEAVENLY reality, not something of the earth, and most especially, not something of GENTILE Rome. The basis of all evangelical theology, on the other hand, is the rejection of Roman Catholicism's synthesis of the Church with the GENTILE State and the acceptance of Israel's rightful heritage on the earth - the acceptance of the biblical reality that there is only one nation God has ever covenanted with - and that nation is Israel. [Please see chapter 3]

It world seem, then, that the problem in acquiring a proper perspective of the fourth great Gentile power is not so much in seeing this empire as a REVIVAL of the "Roman Empire" as it is in seeing the recasting of the CONTINUING sphere of this same empire into its final ten-toed or ten-horned configuration.

THE GEOGRAPHIC EXTENT
OF PROPHETIC BABYLON

But what of the extent of this empire? What are its proper prophetic boundaries? It has commonly been held that the last stage of the Roman Empire [it's ten-toed configuration], will coincide with the boundaries of Caesar's Empire - that of ancient Rome. But, once again, this is an argument based on a misunderstanding conveyed in the English word "empire," which denotes a political or military unity, rather than in the English word, "civilization," which is the meaning properly conveyed in the prophecy. Concerning the boundaries of the "New Roman Empire," Pentecost writes:

"There seems to be good reason for holding the view that the final future boundaries of the last Gentile world power need not coincide with the former boundaries, BUT, IN FACT, MAY EXCEED THEM GREATLY ... Scripture seems to indicate an empire of even greater dimensions than [of ancient Rome]: "... power was given him [Antichrist as head of this final form of the fourth great Gentile empire] over all kindreds, and tongues, and nations" (Rev. 13:7) ... THE RELATIONSHIP EXISTING BETWEEN THE "BEAST" AND THE "WOMAN" (Rev. 17) SUGGESTS THE SCOPE OF THIS EMPIRE." 11

Pentecost then quotes F.C. Jennings as follows:

"... the Scriptures tell us unequivocally that the world empire that Rome possessed [speaking here of the political unity that the Roman civilization had at one time held] will again be restored to her, and my purpose is to gather such light as it has pleased the God of all grace to give in His word, as to the extent and limitations of that revived ... [political unity]. The boundaries of the [new] empire have been assumed to have ... the same geographical boundaries ... [as the old empire]. THIS I TAKE TO HAVE BEEN A FUNDAMENTAL MISTAKE, for it ignores completely the introduction of another ... basic and characteristic element, into the earth. Mere geographic boundaries are but little in accord with the peculiarly spiritual character of this era; the introduction of a distinct spiritual element, demands even for earthly boundaries, a spiritual measurement ...

"Turning then to the seventeenth chapter of the Book of Revelation, we see the whole stage filled with two personalities only: a "Beast" and a "Woman" ... these two ... picture ... the future prophetic earth ... there can be no argument or discussion as to this speaking of both the CIVIL [political, economic, and military] and ECCLESIASTICAL [religious] conditions that will rule and characterize that part of the earth that is within the limits or boundaries of Prophecy. The whole of it will be filled with what shall answer to this "Beast" and this "Woman." The two [the "Beast (which answers to the Civil Power) and the "Woman" (which answers to the Religious Power) are thus indissolubly co-related, and tell us to what end all [this is] trending; and that is that there will eventually be a one World-Empire and a one World-Church, and these will cover the whole of what is now called CHRISTENDOM; the one Empire supporting the one Church, [as] the "Beast" in the picture supports the "Woman," and the "Woman" is supported by the "Beast" ...

"... we are compelled to see that the boundaries of the Empire will be the boundaries of the professed, but UTTERLY APOSTATE CHRISTIANITY; and vice-versa, the boundaries of the apostate church will be exactly co-terminus with those of the Empire. But that being assured and clear, it follows beyond all question, that the revived Roman Empire will include ... every country everywhere in which there is any claim to apostate Christianity at all, AND SO WILL INCLUDE NORTH AMERICA ..." 12

Prophetic Babylon will thus be the indissoluble union of the Apostate Church [the Woman] with GENTILE world power [the Beast] as pictured in Revelation 17 in the description of a woman drunk with the blood of the saints and riding on the back of a beast. The union of the Church with GENTILE world power was formalized in the union of the old Roman Empire with the Roman Catholic Church under Constantine at the beginning of the fourth Century A.D. It was carried over into the Medieval World and has characterized the civilization of the West to this very day, spreading even into the Protestant world. This union of civil and religious authority will characterize the final form of the Fourth Wild Beast - known in the Scripture as "Prophetic Babylon." The borders of the "Revived Roman Empire," then, will reach out and encompass all of Christendom.

But we must never forget that the roots of this vast latter-day empire rest in Europe. Indeed, it is extremely important to bear in mind that the nations of Europe are exactly those nations which were chiefly responsible during the last five centuries for spreading Western Civilization through their system of colonization to the four corners of the world - to North and South America, Africa, the Middle East, India, and even parts of Asia.

The fact is, eighty years ago, the European nations controlled through their system of colonies almost one-half of the land surface of the globe! And while today they have lost their colonial empires, the civilization they introduced to these areas still survives and in many instances is thriving and prospering more than in the original "mother countries" [e.g., Canada, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, etc.]. The Beast of Daniel (Chapter 7) is thus represented by a body - which stands for the full extent of Western Civilization - and the head with ten horns - which stand for those countries of Europe chiefly responsible for carrying this civilization to the world.

THE "YOUNGER HORN"

Now, something new is added to the picture of the Beast which represents the final form of the fourth great GENTILE world power - AN ELEVENTH HORN!!! Pentecost writes:

"From among these ten kingdoms there will arise ... [another which] will have control over the whole dominion ..." 13

In other words, there shall arise an eleventh nation out from the original ten [an offspring of the ten] which will grow up and eventually dominate the whole of Western Civilization. And it is out from this eleventh nation that the Antichrist shall come [please see Daniel 7]. This eleventh horn [nation] is described as little or younger. The Hebrew word translated here as little means hindermost or that which comes after and conveys the thought of youth or younger as in the term, little girl. (Daniel 7:8 and 24). It is thus to be understood that this eleventh horn is one of those nations colonized by the original ten. This horn is described as more stout or much stronger than the original [first] ten (Dan. 7:20).

We ask the reader now, which nation could this possibly be? Brazil? Argentina? Canada? Mexico? Australia? But, come now, let's reason further, for there is more.

Some years ago, S. Franklyn Logsdon wrote:

"Man seems to have a special delight and a strong aptitude for the use of nicknames and symbolical terms. The "Bambino" would of course be the home run swatting Babe Ruth, with the "Hammer," Henry Aaron, the current champion in that category ... Everyone conversant with boxing would recognize the "Brown Bomber" as Joe Lewis ... . So also with the Scripture. Prophetic entities, not specifically named in the Bible, may be identified by representations or by descriptions [such as the "Olive Tree" for Israel and the "Lampstand" for the Church] ... The chief reason why many nations of today are not mentioned by name in the Scripture is simply and obviously because ... [they] were not in existence in Bible days. The [human] writer did not know the ethnic names. We must, therefore, search for designations or names or both, which in a convincing manner are applicable [to the world situation of today]. By description, we can identify people, places, and things. Thus, it should not be impossible, or even difficult to identify nations in this manner." 14

DESCRIPTION OF CIVIL BABYLON

The Bible describes Prophetic Babylon - the eleventh horn (i.e., the "younger" horn) - as follows [and here we only use descriptions of Prophetic Babylon that are generally recognized as such by "mainline" evangelicals):

  1. She dwells in the midst of many waters - she is protected by the waters [or oceans] which surround her [literally, she is said to dwell "in the heart of the seas" - Pember, Earth's Earliest Ages, pg. 46). Indeed, Antichrist is pictured by Ezekiel as exulting in the strength of his sea-girt nation, and likening himself, in proud reliance upon his inaccessible dwelling, to the God that sitteth above the heavens [Ezekiel 28:1-2; Jeremiah 51:13).
  2. Her People are a mingled people - that is to say, a "melting pot." (Jeremiah 50:37).
  3. She evidently has never known the heel of a conqueror and is exceedingly powerful militarily (Revelation 18:4-5 - implied, Jer. 50:23).
  4. The nations of the earth are dominated by her (Rev. 18:9); she is an arrogant, proud, and haughty nation (Jer. 50:23).
  5. She is the greatest economic power in the world, a power so great that the nations of the earth are able to grow rich if they can trade with her or are allowed access to her domestic markets in which to sell their goods (Revelation 18:3, 11, 12).
  6. By means of her economic power [covetousness] she controls the world; gluttony reigns as the people (or the elites which control this nation) live sumptuously [but want more - their appetite never satisfied], while many in the world starve (Jeremiah 50:38; 51:12-13).
  7. Her people do not know the bitterness of poverty and live in great wealth (Revelation 18:7).
  8. The nations of the earth must trade with her by sea (a confirmation of #1 above - Revelation 18:19, 23).
  9. The people of Babylon are exceedingly materialistic and are madly in love with their worldly possessions which have become their idols (Jeremiah 50:38); her tastes are extravagant (Rev. 18:14); she is a nation of great material attainments; and her achievements in the "fine arts" [i.e., music, dance, literature, films, etc.] are renowned throughout the world and copied everywhere (implied - Rev. 18:22; Jer. 51:53).
  10. Babylon is described as a vast latter-day nation, not as a single city (Jer. 50-51). In fact, she is a nation of MANY influential cities (Rev. 18:18). In this connection, it is necessary to note that we are here talking not of mere city to be rebuilt on the site of Ancient Babylon; such a concept is in conflict with Isa. 13:19-22 - please see the note on page 1347 of the Scofield Reference Bible.
  11. Babylon is described as a nation which at one time was a God-fearing nation [a "Golden Cup" in the Lord's hand], but a nation which left God and fell into degradation and then which intoxicated the rest of the world with her iniquity. (Jer. 51:7).
  12. Finally, she is a nation that "has reached for the stars [heavens]" - i.e., space (Jer. 51:53).

Now, we ask the reader to put all emotion and feelings aside, and to decide the following question in light of the cold, hard, SCRIPTURAL facts: which nation are we talking about here? We want to emphasize that what has been presented is nothing new. It's just that evangelicals refuse to come to grips with the truth of the prophetic Scriptures.

One additional description should be noted: prophetic Babylon is also described as a nation which shall pose as Israel's chief ally and protector in the "latter days" [Please see Daniel and the Latter Days by Robert Duncan Culver, Chapter 4; please also see Daniel 7]. We ask the reader to name the nation today which is Israel's chief and only ally, that one nation more than any other nation which poses as Israel's defender - be honest, which nation is this?

Lastly, in connection with Religious Babylon, is it just mere coincidence that the United States recently (i.e., 1984) broke its long-standing tradition - and the Constitution - by formally recognizing the Vatican (i.e., that religious power which all mainline expositors [Ironside, Gaebelein, Barnhouse, etc. recognize as the religious power (i.e., the woman) of Revelation 17] and establishing diplomatic ties with this greatest of Christian apostasies?

BABYLON AND THE TEN
CONFEDERATED KINGDOMS

Evangelicals have in the past contended that Antichrist would secure world dominion as king of the Ten Confederated Kingdoms (evidently a group of Western European states - though it's anyone's guess as to which states these might be, and it's probably not all that important to single the specific states out - after all, what the Bible has in mind here is Western Europe taken as a whole). But the Scripture in no place identifies the Antichrist as the king of these nations. While the Bible does indicate that he will dominate them, it does not say that he will rule directly over them, but that he will be an ELEVENTH KING OF AN ELEVENTH NATION (see Daniel 7:24). [In this connection it is interesting to note that the number "eleven" is the number of apostasy.]

Moreover, in Daniel chapter seven, concerning the Ten Confederated Kingdoms [the ten horns of the fourth wild beast - verses 7 and 8], the Antichrist is described not as one of the "ten kings," but as an eleventh king of an eleventh nation, a nation independent of, and different from the original ten, a nation, however, which evidently derives its heritage from the original ten nations. Is there any doubt that the United States has derived its heritage, its culture, and over 80% of its people from Europe? Can there really be any doubt as to the identity of this great latter-day nation? - are we not speaking here of the United States of America?

A GRAVE OVERSIGHT

In the light of all this, is it not ridiculous for evangelicals to ascribe such little attention to the relevance of the United States in the Last Days? Is it not a grave oversight? This "barbarian-style-mentality" is void of contemporary realities that are so evident that it is akin to talking about daisies as the prominent subject of interest in a photograph in which there appears a huge elephant which occupies 85% of the picture.

The United States alone produces almost one-fourth (22%) of the world's total gross product. But the importance of the U.S. economy to the world cannot be measured simply by means of comparing its gross national product with that of the other nations; its importance - indeed, its centrality - lies in the fact that it is the engine that makes the other economies of the world work, and this is especially true of the economies of Western Europe and Japan [including the nations of the so-called "Pacific Basin" - Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, etc.]; the American economy has become the "market place" for the products of these economies. Without access to the American "market," the economies of Western Europe and Japan would collapse overnight.

Moreover, figures which have shown that the economies of the E.C. and Japan have caught up with that of the United States are exceedingly misleading. In terms of real growth, these figures are vastly inflated. Since 1969 (a time wherein the gross national product of the E.C. and Japan were shown by the mass media as being only one-half that of the U.S.), the real growth of the E.C. and Japan has increased only slightly against the United States by less than two percent a year. This trend is now reversing itself, with the United States actually leading the E.C. and Japan in its rate of real growth.

Why then do mass media figures show that the gross national products of the E.C. and Japan have increased almost one hundred percent against the United States? The reason is this: the Federal Reserve has embarked on a calculated policy of deflating the American dollar against the German Mark and the Japanese Yen to mitigate the ravages of free trade on American workers and industry - which has had the side effect of making the economies of Europe and Japan appear to be growing rapidly against the American economy. But this growth has very little to do with real growth in industrial capacity, etc. and is to a large extent merely an illusion - which brings us finally to a discussion of free trade and globalization.


Section II

Free Trade & Globalism:
the Engine Which Drives
America's "New World Order" Dreams

I SIT A QUEEN

"How much she hath glorified herself, and lived deliciously, so much torment and sorrow give her; for she saith in her heart, I sit a queen, and am no widow, and shall see no sorrow." (Rev. 18:7)

Historically, the U.S. economy has been sufficient unto itself, despite the rhetoric of some "free-traders" and the "investing class" [i.e., those who derive their incomes from investments as opposed to the those who derive their livelihoods from wages]. While it's true that in recent years this reality has been eroded due primarily to the artifices of the new "global economy" and the interest that certain circles in the United States (i.e., the investing class) have for "globalization," it's also true that this new "necessity" for imports is largely an artificial one which has been imposed on the United States largely as a result of the obscene search by American multinational corporations for "cheap labor," (cheap labor maximizes returns on investment) and the globalist dreams of America's new "international yuppie elite" and her foreign policy establishment than it is the result of real necessity.

Indeed, in his classic (and iconoclastic) book on free trade, The Myth of Free Trade, Ravi Batra writes:

"... Britain, Germany, Japan, Canada, and Australia, among many others, are clearly open economies (i.e., trade dependent economies) because a large proportion of their economic activity depends on foreign trade ...

"What about the United States? Throughout its history ... America was practically a closed economy (i.e., a self-sufficient economy) ... Postwar data reveal that the United States became a free trade country (only) after 1973 ..."15

The fact is, the U.S. reached its highest point insofar as real individual wages are concerned (measured in constant dollars) in 1973 when the U.S. was still a closed, self-sufficient economy. 16

Why, then, did the United States choose to open its economy? That's another story, a story which - as Dr. Alfred Eckes, Professor Emeritus of Economics at the University of Ohio, points out - had little to do with improving the overall standard of living of its average citizens than it had to do with the geopoitical considerations of its elite foreign policy and economic establishment, specifically, its desire to create a system of economically dependent (i.e., pliant) "satellite nations" to aid it in its war against "World Communism" (i.e., the Soviet Union) and its drive to achieve "world order" - as well as the desire of the industrial elites in this country to find reliable, cheap labor (and in the process, break the back of the American labor movement). Christopher Layne, a senior fellow in foreign policy studies at the Cato Institute, and Benjamin Schwartz, an analyst in the International Policy Department at the Rand Corporation, explain in an article which appeared in Foreign Policy entitled, "American Hegemony - Without an Enemy:"

"It is commonly held that the Cold War's end allows the United States to conduct a searching reexamination of its role in world politics. In fact, however, that has not happened and there is no reason to believe it will ... The driving force behind America's foreign policy has shown itself to be more basic than the containment of its (old) Cold War adversary (i.e., the Soviet Union) ... At the end of World War II, Washington was committed to an active internationalist agenda and would have pursued it even if the Soviet Union had not emerged as a geopolitical and ideological rival. That essential point was acknowledged in NSC 68, the 1950 National Security Council document that articulated America's Cold War strategy "... as one designed to foster a world environment in which the America system can survive and flourish.

"The belief that American security is endangered by events in places that most agree have no intrinsic strategic value is a long-standing tenet of U.S. foreign policy ... To those outside the foreign policy elite, the tenor of discussion of the Balkan crisis must seem stilted. After all, visions of falling dominoes, the perception that world politics is a bipolar ideological confrontation between democracy and dictatorship, an obsession with re-affirming U.S. leadership and resolve, and concern for the vitality of alliances such as NATO all seem to belong to another era. To the uninitiated, the Cold War's end renders implausible the entire rationale for continuing American security obligations to Europe and East Asia (principally Japan and Korea).

"To understand why the U.S. foreign policy elite still regards American commitments in Europe and East Asia as vital, one must look beyond the (old) Soviet Union. After World War II Washington sought an international order based upon - to quote NSC 68's primary author, Paul Nitze - "preponderant (American) power. That objective had very little to do with any existing or projected Soviet actions; in fact, American statesmen knew that their wide-ranging objectives would increase Soviet insecurity and thereby the risk of war.

"If fear of Soviet expansion had been the only, or even the most important, reason to bring Western Europe and East Asia under the America security umbrella, why did the United States persist in its strategy long after it was apparent that Western Europe, Japan, and South Korea could provide their own security? And now that the USSR itself has disappeared, why does Washington continue to insist that an American-led NATO and the U.S. defense commitments to East Asia are still indispensable to America's security? The answer is that the basic aspiration of U.S. security policy since the Second World War has not been to contain the Soviets.

"The Cold War provided the impetus (i.e., excuse) for the strategy of (American) preponderance, which was directed against both the Soviet Union and the Western sphere. By integrating Germany and Japan into a network of U.S.-dominated security and economic arrangements (principally through the device of free trade), Washington achieved two important objectives: Germany and Japan were co-opted into the anti-Soviet coalition, and, just as important, these erstwhile enemies were, themselves, contained. Through this policy of "double containment," the United States assumed responsibility for maintaining peace among the states in those areas ... For Washington, the pacification of Europe and East Asia was the key to creating and sustaining an open global economic system, which was seen as vital to American prosperity - especially elite prosperity, i.e., the prosperity of the so-called "investing class."

"Since the aims of the preponderance strategy transcended the U.S.-Soviet rivalry, it is not surprising that the foreign policy community now seeks to employ the same approach after the Cold War. Indeed, the Soviet Union's disappearance has seemingly removed the last barrier between Washington and the complete attainment of its world order aspirations.

"... As long as the United States can use its superpower capabilities to manipulate, regulate, and calibrate regional politics in Europe and East Asia, it can continue to prevent international politics from relapsing into normal patterns (i.e., national rivalries). Thus, Washington must retain its preeminent role in world politics, as the Pentagon's now infamous draft of the Defense Planning Guidance for the Fiscal Years 1994-1999 argued. That document asserted that to ensure a favorable international environment, America must prevent other states "from challenging our leadership or seeking to overturn the established political and economic order" [and that we must maintain the mechanisms for deterring potential competitors from even aspiring to a larger regional or global role (parenthesis in original document - editor)] "Potential competitors" were, of course, widely known to mean Germany and Japan. Those goals mirror the imperatives formulated for America's Cold War national security policy in the late 1940s. As historian Melvyn Leffler has written, those imperatives dictated that "neither an integrated Europe nor a united Germany nor an independent Japan must be permitted to emerge as a third force."

"... the American foreign policy elite's vision of world order springs from the ... outlook ... that America's economic links with Western Europe and East Asia are crucial to ... (world order). (America's) ... empire of free trade ... is imperial in the strategic sense of that term. (It is) a world order policy based on pacification, reassurance, stability, and economic interdependence ... It is not an exaggeration to suggest that the quest for world order will ... inexorably result in a globe-girdling empire." 17

Thus, the globalization of the world's economy had its genesis not primarily in abstract economic and technological forces, but in distinct policy decisions the United States made as a result of its struggle to establish "world order."

FREE TRADE - MERELY A DEVICE
TO UNDERGIRD AMERICAN HEGEMONY

While today it is fashionable to hold to the idea that the present global economy emerged in the 1970s and '80s as the result of irresistible technological change and overwhelming economic forces, the fact is the globalization of the world's economy began long before these forces were ever in place; long before the widespread use of the computer, and the possibility of instantaneous electronic fund transfers. To say today, as some do, that the United States needs trade with the rest of the world per se to sustain its level of economic well being simply does not comport with the facts. The fact of the matter is the United States enjoyed its highest standard of living - during the 1950s and early 1960s - at a time when it carried on very little foreign trade vis a vis its overall Gross National Product. Why? - because it possessed in itself all the attributes of great wealth:

  1. An abundance of natural resources.
  2. Powerful and dynamic business combinations.
  3. A well educated and motivated work force.
  4. A well developed physical infrastructure.
  5. A powerful internal market.

No other nation on earth possesses all these advantages in such abundance and balance. Professors George Friedman and Merrideth LeBard write:

"The U.S. ... (is) generally self-contained and able to generate growth without extraordinary dependence on either exports ... or imports ... As (a) continent rather than (a) mere nation, (the United States) ... is not defined (by its) ... basic needs in terms of foreign economic policy (as are countries like Japan and Germany)."18

Layne and Schwartz agree:

"It must be remembered that not only does the United States depend far less on foreign trade than its major economic partners, but to a large degree the interconnection (between it and its partners) is volitional (i.e., voluntary)." 19

For example, the U.S. requirement for imported raw materials is almost negligible: U.S. import requirements for coal/lignite (0.4%), nonmetallic ores (4.5%), iron concentrates (3.4%), farm products (1.3%), chemicals (5.5%), food (2.8%), lumber (1.0%), primary metals (4.2%), scrap metal (0.1%), all others (12.9%) are very limited, especially in comparison to the needs of countries like Japan and Germany. Only in oil, where the United States imports almost 44.6% of its requirements, is the United States truly dependent on the outside world; and even here, it has the military muscle to keep it flowing and/or adequate substitutes - i.e., coal and shale from which to manufacture man-made (ersatz) petroleum products.20

FREE TRADE AND "WORLD ORDER"

Free trade, then, has very little to do with raising American living standards - at least the living standards of average, everyday working Americans - and everything to do with the pursuit of American world-hegemony. This is critical in understanding the concept behind free trade: free trade as an idea was birthed in the State Department, not in the Department of Commerce. From the beginning free trade was, and is today, a creature of politics and diplomacy, not commerce and economics. Political and diplomatic forces, not economic and commercial ones, shaped U.S. interests in free trade.

Friedman and LeBard write:

"The free trade regime was not ... primarily (an) economic event, but a political one. It was a means toward a political end: internal harmony in the alliance and the creation of healthy economies and societies within the alliance."21

The emphasis on opening up the huge American market to aid foreign allies first surfaced at Bretton Woods and the 1947 Geneva trade negotiations which produced the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). The thought behind free trade was simple: even if the United States poured massive amounts of money into Europe and Japan to rebuild plants and equipment, as it was beginning to do with the Marshall Plan, the goods produced by these plants could not be sold. There was no market for them; no one in Europe and Japan had the money to buy what was produced. A market, therefore, for the goods and services produced had to be found: and that market was the United States.

The idea of opening up the U.S. market for European and Japanese goods and services was initially pushed by a relatively small State Department group led by Undersecretary of State, Joseph Grew. By the beginning of the Korean War, Dean Acheson and George Kennan had also joined Grew in pushing free trade as an instrument of U.S. foreign policy. By the end of the Korean conflict, free trade had emerged as the principle instrument of U.S. foreign policy.

Friedman and LeBard continue:

"GATT was the foundation on which the Western political system rested: without GATT the American alliance system would crumble." 22

Alfred E. Eckes, "Ohio Eminent Research Professor" at the University of Ohio and chairman [1982-1984] of the U.S. International Trade Commission during the first Reagan Administration, agrees. He writes:

"To strengthen free world economies and help contain Soviet expansionism the executive branch (beginning with Harry Truman and extending even to the current administration - both Republicans and Democrats) ... rolled back tariffs and removed trade restrictions ... opening up the giant American market to the world's manufacturers ... (Indeed) the record suggests that for diplomatic and national security reasons the U.S. government sacrificed thousands of domestic jobs to create employment and prosperity elsewhere in the non-communist world." 23

Lester Thurrow, Professor of Economics, Dean of MIT's Sloan School of Management and a member of the editorial board of the New York Times, elaborates:

"...the GATT-Bretton Woods system ... was designed to help ... the industrial world rebuild from the destruction of World War II ... If countries could be made rich, they would be democratic. If their richness depended upon selling in the American market, they would be forced to be allies of the United States."24

Friedman and LeBard continue:

"... After World War II, the United States set about establishing a system of alliances, binding together a vast coalition on three principles: hostility to the Soviet Union, collective security, and ... trade. Behind this strategy was a deeper one: using American economic strength to entice nations close (geographically) to the Soviet Union to risk war with the Soviets in return for the substantial economic benefits of membership in the American bloc.25 ... (the) free trade regime ... was created by the United States for several purposes, not the least of which was political. The postwar free trade regime, which continues to reign today, had the effect of opening (U.S.) markets to the exports of recovering economies ... (These nations) took full advantage of the opportunities available (in the U.S. market) ... and grew prosperous (thereby)."26 [Revelation 18: "... the merchants of these things (Japan, the nations of the E.C., Korea, Mexico, etc.), which were made rich by her (i.e., Babylon), shall stand afar off for fear of her torment (verse 15) ... SHE WAS THEIR BIGGEST CUSTOMER (verse 12). SHE MADE THEM ALL RICH FROM (her trade) (verse 19).]

"The willingness to endure economic discomfort for political ends was the hallmark of American foreign policy from 1945 onward. The American obsession with the Soviet military and political threat was the safety net for Japan as well as other countries ... . The U.S. rationally {calculated that it would be better to endure ... economic pain than the political disaster of a European or Japanese realignment with Soviet Union.}"27

In essence, Eckes says -

"... the United States ... trad(ed) access to the American market for foreign policy favors"28

- that is to say, the American government undertook a deliberate course of action designed to trade American jobs away in exchange for allied support in the struggle against world communism. The coin which made this policy work was jobs - selling American jobs in order to create jobs in other countries - all this in exchange for allied loyalty and compliance with America's "world order" aspirations.

And lest anyone think that America's foreign policy elite has abandoned the trade-off inherent in this globalist dream - i.e., American jobs for American world-hegemony - one has only to consider what's happening with regard to NAFTA. It's Germany and Japan all over again - only this time America is buying hegemony (and security) on its southern border (as opposed to East Asia and Europe) and paying for it - as it did with Japan and Europe - with American jobs. And it's going to be an expensive bargain indeed! The hemorrhage of jobs to Mexico is only just beginning - in the end, it's going to be enormous, despite the effort of America's free trade elite to camouflage what's really going on. The following is just a short list of jobs already lost - but it indicates how widespread the loss is and indicates how deeply the hemorrhage will eventually become:

BABYLON - IS THERE
REALLY MUCH OF A MYSTERY?

Free trade, then, is the hallmark of U.S. hegemony over the world - and this is exactly the basis of Babylonian hegemony in the "end of days." What nation, then, is the Bible talking about here? - Can there be any real doubt? Again -

"And the merchants of the earth shall weep and morn over her; FOR NO MAN BUYETH THEIR MERCHANDISE ANYMORE (verse 11) ... the merchants of these things [Japan, the nations of the E.C., etc.], which were made rich by her [America], shall stand afar off for fear of her torment (verse 15) ... SHE WAS THEIR BIGGEST CUSTOMER (verse 12). SHE MADE THEM ALL RICH FROM HER GREAT WEALTH (verse 19) ... and all the ship owners and captains of the merchant ships and crews will stand a long way off, crying as they watch the smoke ascend, and saying, "Where in all the world is there another ... [nation] such as this?" (verse 17-18) (Revelation 18:10-19).

THE REALITY OF AMERICAN
MILITARY PREPONDERANCE

From a military standpoint - and given the collapse of the Soviet Union - the United States has no equal left to challenge its hegemony. What military forces Western Europe and Japan possess are largely infantry units with only limited mechanized and armor capabilities. Their navies are minuscule in comparison to the U.S. navy, while their air forces are small and years behind the U.S. Air Force technologically. Moreover, these nations possess very little nuclear capability. None of these nations has even the remotest possibility [either alone or in combination with each other] of building a military machine with any chance of competing with the Americans in the distant future, if ever at all. The Belgian, Danish, Greek, Dutch, and Irish military establishments are so tiny as to be nonexistent. Together, the British, French, German, and Italian armies have fewer first-line tanks than the Israeli army, and many of the tanks they do possess are nothing more than discards from the Americans. They possess among themselves a few tiny obsolete aircraft carriers, a few submarines, and an equally small number of surface ships. The French Air Force possess less then 300 first-line planes. None of them is capable of carrying any real offensive payload. The same is true of the British and German air forces. To compare these forces with the forces in the American military establishment is an exercise in absurdity.

Without wanting to appear to be descending too far into the vernacular, the American carriers are like something out of Buck Rogers - they are more like oceanic "battlestars" than anything else and can in no way be compared to the carriers which the Europeans possess. For instance, the two aircraft carriers the British used in the Falkland crisis in the early 1980s were 19,000 and 29,000 tons respectively. The American carriers approach 100,000 tons apiece. Moreover, each single one of the American carriers is capable of waging war on a scale far broader and more destructive than the entire Allied Armies of World War II; and with their electronic countermeasure capability (ECM) they are more than able to defend themselves against almost anything any enemy could throw at them - especially in light of the Soviet demise. Furthermore, the new generation of American submarines are themselves something out of the Twenty-fifth Century - in some instances they are even larger than the battleships of the First and Second World Wars.

Could the Europeans catch up? NO!! The answer to such a question must be unequivocally NO!! First of all, to mount a massive drive to catch up militarily with the Americans within the next twenty-five years would consume one-fourth to one-third of their combined gross national product - a price which would be impossible for any nation to pay, no matter how dedicated and iron-willed that nation, let alone today's wishy-washy and effete Europeans - to say nothing of the Japanese! Secondly, one does not build modern-day carriers and warplanes on the order of what is contained in the U.S. inventory "overnight" as was done during the Second World War, an age of far simpler technology. It is not uncommon to find that just one aircraft carrier of the "Nimitz Class" can take from one to one and a half decades to build - from the planning stage to the time that it is operational and on station. Thirdly - and this is important - the Europeans and the Japanese do not even possess the most rudimentary technology IN AND OF THEMSELVES to create a European or Japanese equivalent to the American carriers, the American fighter aircraft, the American main battle tanks, the American submarines, and the American missile systems. While this assertion may come as quite a shock to those who have been persuaded of Japanese technological prowess, it is, nonetheless, true.

THE EUROPEANS AND THE JAPANESE ARE ALMOST ENTIRELY DEPENDENT ON ACCESS TO AMERICAN TECHNOLOGY. The fact of the matter is, Japanese technology has come about not so much as the result of Japanese "in-house" research and development, but as a result of access to American technology - and this dependence reaches even to the ridiculous. For example, Japanese toy manufacturers manufacture toys under American patents granted to them largely from an American firm based in Chicago - THEY SEEM INCAPABLE OF EVEN DEVELOPING A "TOY" TECHNOLOGY OF THEIR OWN, let alone a weapons and "high-tech" technology which is of their own making. Should the Japanese ever get out of hand, they would almost immediately be "cut-off" from access to such technology - and this has been the historic problem (the Achilles heel) of Japan's economy and one which becomes especially pronounced when it is cut off from access to American R&D. For example, during World War II the Japanese Zero (which had been developed largely as a result of American technological breakthroughs) started off the war as the best plane in the Pacific theater. But the Japanese were never able to develop a successor plane and, as a result, ended the war with the same plane - one which by then had become obsolete and anachronistic. To understand the totality of this dependence is to begin to understand the nature of American superiority and domination, not only militarily, but commercially as well.

And the situation hasn't changed much since then. While the Japanese may be masters at applying technology to day-to-day commercial uses, the technology they apply has all been "borrowed" [and, in the case of the Japanese, occasionally stolen] from the Americans. Indeed, the case involving Hitachi and IBM which "surfaced" in the news some ten years ago is but the tip of an iceberg involving Japanese industrial and "high-tech" espionage - and one which continues unabated today; indeed, more technology has been stolen from the U.S. by the Japanese than the Russians have ever been able to steal. The Japanese and the Europeans simply do not possess the military-business-educational mix on the huge scale necessary for research and development - especially in "high-tech" fields.

"And Babylon, the glory of kingdoms, the beauty of the Chaldees' excellence, shall be as when God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah," (Is. 13:19)

"... I am a God. I sit in the seat of God, in the midst of the seas ..." (Ezek. 28:2)

What is our point is saying all this? - it's simply this: those who say that America is losing her military and economic superiority to the Japanese and the Europeans either do not understand the nature of what is happening, or are so blinded by preconceived ideas [and their misplaced patriotism (and I say this sadly as a decorated Vietnam combat veteran)] that they cannot face reality in the light of the cold hard facts relative to America's almost total domination of today's world.

But facts are facts, nonetheless and others plainly see them for what they are: for example, Luigi Barzini, the well-known Italian author, writes:

"We Europeans have been reduced to the role of the Greeks in the Roman Empire. The most useful function an Italian or a Frenchman can perform these days is to teach an American the proper temperature at which to drink his red wine."

And Oliver Wormser, president of the Bank of France, writes:

"We are about as relevant to the Americans as a bunch of Caribbean banana republics."

FOOTNOTES

  1. Pember, op. cit., pgs. 45-49.
  2. Pentecost, op. cit., pg. 315.
  3. C.I. Scofield, The Scofield Reference Bible. New York: Oxford University Press, 1909, pg. 1345.
  4. Edward Dennett, Daniel the Prophet. New York: Our Hope, 1911, pg. 9.
  5. Chafer, op. cit., IV, pg. 333.
  6. Arno C. Gaebelein, The Prophet Daniel. New York: Our Hope, 1911, pgs 73-76.
  7. Please see J. Dwight Pentecost, Things To Come (Grand Rapids, Zondervan, 1958), pg. 217.
  8. Pentecost, op. cit., pg. 319.
  9. Pentecost, op. cit., pg. 320.
  10. G.N.H. Peters, Theocratic Kingdom , II. Grand Rapids: Kregel, 1952, pg. 643.
  11. Pentecost, op. cit., pg. 320-321.
  12. F.C. Jennings, "The Boundaries of the Revived Roman Empire," Our Hope, XVIII: 387-389, December, 1940.
  13. Pentecost, op. cit., pg. 320.
  14. S. Franklyn Logsdon, The U.S.A. in Prophecy. Publisher and city unknown. pg. 16.
  15. Dr. Ravi Batra, The Myth of Free Trade (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons), 1993, pgs 37-39.
  16. Source: Council of Economic Advisers, Economic Report of the President (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1991 and 1992. Taken from Dr. Ravi Batra, The Myth of Free Trade (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons), 1993, pg. 26.
  17. Foreign Policy entitled, "American Hegemony - Without an Enemy" (Fall, 1993, No. 92, pg. 5) published by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace):
  18. Ibid., pg. 197.
  19. Foreign Policy entitled, "American Hegemony - Without an Enemy" (Fall, 1993, No. 92, pg. 5) published by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
  20. Source: United States Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the United States, Washington D.C., 1989.
  21. Ibid., pg. 195.
  22. Op. cit., Friedman and LeBard, pg. 196.
  23. Ibid., pg. 135.
  24. Lester Thurrow, Head to Head (New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1992) pg. 15 and 22.
  25. George Friedman and Meredith LeBard, The Coming War with Japan (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1991) pg. 5.
  26. Ibid., pg. 6.
  27. Op. cit., Friedman and LeBard, pg. 381.
  28. Op. cit., Eckes, pg. 135.

The following articles expand to one degree or another on the theme developed in this chapter.

The American Empire And The New Global Elite
 
The American Empire: The Corporate, Pentagon, CIA and Missionary Archipelago
 
The American Empire and The U.S. System Of Client States
 
Chiapas: The Effect Of The New World Order On The Poor
 
Christian Evangelicals And The Death Squads: Oh What A Tangled Web We Are Weaving For Ourselves!
 
Colombia: America's New Vietnam
 
The Death Squads: Bringin In The Kingdom Of God Through Terror, Torture And Death
 
The Revolution In Military Affairs And American World - Hegemony
 
The Spread Of America's New World Order System Northward From Latin America To The United States
 
The Third World As A Model For The New World Order

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