THE GREEK CRISIS AND THE INEVITABLE AMERICAN MILITARY INTERVENTION

[Making a shambles of the Christian evangelical's mindset regarding Europe]

By: SR Shearer
May 19, 2012

Angela Merkel and the European and American financial elites verses the Greek people; Making the Greek people pay for the greed of Wall Street, and in the process igniting civil war in Greece. [Please see APPENDIX 1 for information on how badly German / Greek relations have deteriorated.]


NOTE: We urge you to read our article, "Whose Purposes Are Being Served When the AntiChrist Is Portrayed as a New Age Guru and as a Man of Peace."


PREFACE

The colossus of Nebuchadnezzar'
first vision

Europe is on the verge of economic and political collapse - a collapse that cannot help but DEMOLISH the fantasy of countless numbers of evangelicals who over the years have pictured the anti-Christ as emerging out of a reinvigorated and united Europe - a fantasy that was popularized by Clarence Larkin (in Dispensational Truth) and CI Scofield (in the Scofield Reference Bible), both of whom saw the final form of Gentile world-power (represented in Nebuchadnezzar's first dream image as the ten toes of the colossus observed in his vision) as a re-invigorated and united Europe under the control of a European dictator. Coupled with this fantasy is the non-sensical belief that America will just fold up and fade away militarily and economically under the impress of the new European super-state. [Please see Part 1 of Chapter XII of the New Antipas Papers, "In Search of Babylon."]

The belief that such a proposition was possible sprang naturally to the minds of men who lived at the turn of the nineteenth century (1899-1900), when the empires of Europe held sway over most of the earth; but these empires are now long gone, and the nations that gave rise to them have been reduced to dwarf status. While it is true that these by-now midget-states managed to cobble together a form of unity in the structure of the EU over the past fifty years, the unity they achieved has been superficial at best, and is now in the process of rapid disintegration under the strain and impress of the present world-wide economic crisis that began in 2008.  [Please see our article, "Europe Is Going from Bad to Worse."]

What's worse, the European economic crisis has led to the rise of radical Right and radical Left political parties that have by now insinuated themselves deeply into the politics of almost all the nations of Europe, a situation that now threatens many of the nations of Europe with civil war. In almost every instance where this threat has manifested itself, the forces of the Left enjoy MUCH more popularity than the forces of the Right - meaning those forces that are beholden to the dictates of Wall Street and Europe's toady financial elites, elites that are attempting to make the people of Europe pay for the greed and avarice of those who caused the debacle in the first place. Needless to say, these greedy, pompous, little asses must - in the end - rely on BRUTE force (meaning the military) to sustain themselves, that plus an appeal to fascist tendencies that still lurk under the surface of the European continent.

This situation has taken its most extreme form in Greece where the communists and the socialists are pitted against the neo-Nazi parties of the Right, backed by the Greek military, which in turn is sustained by the American military - THE ONLY MILITARY ON THE EUROPEAN CONTINENT WITH ANY CREDIBILITY. [Please see our articles, "America versus Europe" and "Reducing Europe to the Status of Greece in the Days of Rome."]

The Beast of Nebuchadnezzar's second vision

What all this must INEVITABLY lead to is the reordering of Europe (perhaps as a ten nation confederation - down from the present 27 nations) with America as the new confederation's undisputed HEGEMON - the eleventh horn on the head of the beast in Nebuchadnezzar's second dream image. [Again, please see Part 1 of Chapter XII of the New Antipas Papers, "In Search of Babylon."]

Just how real the possibility of a US military intervention in Greece is, is attested to by the fact that in Chicago this weekend peace demonstrators from all over the world have gathered at the NATO summit to protest what they see as the coming NATO military intervention in Greece - AND BY NATO THEY MEAN AMERICA. A flyer by UNAC (United National Antiwar Coalition), the organizer for the protests, gives evidence to this fact; the flyer reads in part:

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NATO & BANKS, HANDS OFF GREECE!

Emergency Protest at the Greek Consulate

Solidarity with Greek workers against EU Banks and & NATO austerity.

SATURDAY, May 19 6:30 to 7:30 pm

Today as the NATO military alliance meets in Chicago, Greece faces an unprecedented political, social and economic crisis. The Greek people are refusing the UE bankers austerity measures. Events in Greece could have a domino effect throughout Europe.

Greece is the 4th largest importer of arms in the world. This means billions to U.S. ... military corporations and mass poverty for Greek people. The bankers bail-out loans are structured to continue payments for still more weapons. It is paid with cutbacks, lay offs and austerity measures so extreme that it is literally starving the Greek people.

NATO from its foundation has been an aggressive U.S. dominated military alliance. A U.S. military intervention against the revolutionary Greek workers created a bloody civil war in 1948 - 49 to force Greece into the western military alliance. In 1967 to 1974 with full NATO support a right-wing Greek general organized a brutal military dictatorship. Today NATO's agenda is to once again back up the bankers and the rule of the 1%. As thousands of antiwar, anti-imperialist and anti-NATO activists gather in Chicago: Join an emergency action in solidarity with the resistance of the Greek people

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"NATO is an aggressive U.S. dominated military alliance" - that's what UNAC says.  Plainly, unbelievers see the INEVITABILITY of US intervention in Greece. Once again, Christians are confronted with the fact that, as Jesus indicated -

"... the children of this world are in their generation wiser than the children of light." (Luke 16:8)

-- Antipas

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INTRODUCTION

WSW reports:

"The results of last weekend's elections in Greece [Sunday, May 5th] sent a message that has been heard around the world: Working people want an end to the austerity agenda that has plunged Greece's economy into a depression and slashed living standards everywhere ... [a depression brought on NOT by the so-called profligacy of the Greek people, as the American and European financial elites want people to believe, but by the greed and avarice of Wall Street]." [Please see our article, "Europe on the Verge of Collapse - Failed Austerity Policies Imperil European Economies."]

The two groups in Greek politics that gained from this election were -

  1. the radical Left known as SYRIZA - an alliance of left-wing parties and organizations,

and

  1. the radical Right led by Golden Dawn, which is not just a far-right party, but a group of hard-core neo-Nazis. [Please see our article, "The Rise of Fascism in Europe."]

    NOTE: Golden Dawn has capitalized on the unprecedented collapse of the legitimacy of mainstream parties: not only of ND  (see below) but also of the small conservative LAOS party (Popular Orthodox Action). Moreover, it has leveraged the anger, among some of the public, over the growing numbers of foreign migrants and refugees at a time of national economic crisis. Golden Dawn has also taken a page out of Hamas' and Hezbollah's play book: They show up with groceries at the door of impoverished households, even in leftist strongholds like Pireaus' Perama district. They walk women to the ATM and through "dangerous" neighborhoods. And they have reaped a rich harvest of votes in a political atmosphere defined by poverty, wrath, and despair.

The moderate political parties in Greek politics - PASOK, ND, etc. (i.e. those political parties willing to bow to the austerity policies being imposed on the country by Wall Street and the European financial elites) - appear to be in the process of evaporating.

SYRIZA finished second, behind ND, that had controlled the government until late last year, and ahead of PASOK. Together, PASOK and the ND (Greece's so-called "moderate" parties) polled @ 32 % of the vote, while the parties on the radical Left polled @ 26% and the parties on the radical Right polled @ 7% of the vote with the remaining votes (@35%) being scattered aimlessly in other radical parties across the political spectrum. As a result, "The pro-bailout parties [i.e., the Greek political parties willing to bow to the austerity demands of Wall Street and its European flunkies] no longer have a majority in parliament to vote in destructive measures for the Greek people," said the 38-year-old Tsipras, whose anti-austerity Radical Left Coalition party [i.e., SYRIZA] came in second in Sunday's vote. "The popular mandate clearly renders the bailout agreement [i.e., the austerity demands of Wall Street] invalid."

The results of the voting was as follows:

As indicated above, the political parties that are willing to bow to the demands of Wall Street (shown in green and light blue above) have been unable to form a government: they control only 149 seats in the Greek parliament, and 151 seats are needed to form a government. As of the date of this article, NONE of the parties on the left (shown in red) and the right (shown in dark blue) have been willing to join the "moderates" in forming a government willing to "cow-tow" to Wall Street.

THE GREEK PEOPLE
EXPRESS THEIR RAGE

WSW reports:

"This election is the first time the people of Greece have had a chance to vote on the policies instituted in the wake of Greece's debt crisis. The savage cuts in public spending, wage cuts for public-sector workers, privatization drives and other austerity measures are conditions for an ongoing financial bailout engineered by the European Union, European Central Bank and International Monetary Fund [meaning Wall Street - see note for cartoon below]."

"Austerity has caused a devastating crisis in Greece. But Wall Street wants even more cuts ..."

The IMF report for the Greek economy suggests doubling of VAT (value added tax) and tax on deposits, bonds and rents! It also includes raising taxes on all goods and services from 6.5% to 13%. It should be noted in this connection that - for all practical purposes, the IMF is an American-controlled institution. [Please see our article, "Inside the American New World Order System,"]

WSW continues:

"The result is, first of all, a subversion of the political status quo. The Greek people voted massively against the New Democracy (ND) and the social-democratic PASOK."

According to the European Statistics Authority, @ 30% of the Greek population are now living in poverty!

The Mavens of Wall Street

WALL STREET IS AGHAST AT
WHAT IS HAPPENING IN GREECE

THE EMERGENCE OF THE FAR LEFT IN GREEK POLITICS (MEANING THE SOCIALISTS AND THE COMMUNISTS) - POLITICAL GROUPS WITH LITTLE OR NO COMPULSION OF DEFAULTING ON THE GREEK DEBT AND SENDING THE WORLD'S FINANCIAL MARKETS INTO A TAIL-SPIN -- HAS SENT A SHIVER UP THE SPINES OF THE WORLD'S FINANCIAL ELITES, AND MOST PARTICULARLY, THOSE ON WALL STREET AND IN FRANKFURT. [Please see our article, "A Growing Fear of a Communist Uprising in Europe - Beginning First with Greece."]

Commenting on the rise of the far Left as well as the far Right in Greek politics, James Poulos of Forbes Magazine, which is nothing more than a mouthpiece for Wall Street, writes:

"We all remember the upshot last time communists and fascists had to share a parliament, right? Conditions in Greece today are beginning to take on the eerie cast of Weimar Germany in its final years."

NOTE: The Weimar Republic is the name given by historians to the federal republic and parliamentary representative democracy established in 1919 in Germany to replace the imperial form of government (the so-called "Second Reich"). It was named after Weimar, the city where the constitutional assembly took place. The ensuing period of liberal democracy lapsed in the early 1930s under pressure from the far right (the Nazis) and the far left the Communists), leading eventually to the ascent of the Nazi Party and Adolf Hitler in 1933. This occurred to a very large extent because THE GERMAN BUSINESS ELITES THREW THEIR SUPPORT TO HITLER AND THE NAZIS BECAUSE THE THREAT POSED BY THE COMMUNISTS TERRIFIED THEM. [Please see our article, "The Background to the Euro Crisis."]

A CIVIL WAR IN GREECE WITH THE FORCES OF THE
RIGHT PITTED AGAINST THE FORCES OF THE LEFT

Poulos says that these conditions are leading Greece into civil war, a civil war that will pit the far Left and the far Right against each other, which is what happened in Germany in the late 1920s and early 1930s. Poulos continues:

"With European politics and economics so closely knit together, chaos in Greece poses a double threat:

  • first, to the peace and security of the continent;

  • second, to the survival of the Euro and the EU itself.

    "That threat will become much more than a threat if Greece slips into civil war."

Civil war in Greece will lay bare the full spectrum of questions Europe dreads facing most.

And civil war is fast becoming a certainty in Greece. Poulos writes:

"The collapse of civil order is the specter that hangs over Europe's constituent parts. Markets can survive and even thrive amidst nation-to-nation wars. But civil war in Greece will lay bare the full spectrum of questions Europe dreads facing most. Not only will a Greek meltdown touch off a media frenzy ('Will Italy be next'? 'Is Nazism back'? 'Whither Hungary'?), it will throw down a gauntlet before Europe. With market confidence and institutional legitimacy on the line, will [America's and Europe's financial elites] simply cross their fingers and hope for the best?"

The answer is, certainly NOT: THE INTERVENTION OF THE GREEK MILITARY IN THE POLITICS OF GREECE ON BEHALF OF ANTI-SOCIALIST FORCES (i.e., Wall Street and the European financial elites) WILL BECOME A CERTAINITY - AND, AS IN TIMES PAST, THE AMERICAN MILITARY WILL BE THERE WITH MASSIVE SUPPORT AND POSSIBLY EVEN "BOOTS ON THE GROUND." [We URGE you to see APPENDIX 2 to this article "American Intervention in the Greek Civil War of 1946-1949."]

AMERICAN MILITARY BASES IN GREECE

The mountains surrounding Soda Bay, Crete, are visible from the fantail of the flight deck of the nuclear powered aircraft carrier USS Enterprise (CVN 65) as it approaches the pier for a port visit.


IT WILL BE 1946 - 1949 ALL OVER AGAIN

Poulos continues:

"Unlike most countries in Europe, Greece has an outsized military budget, and the armed forces to match. Where Spaniards, for instance, have little reason to worry that militarism will flow in as prosperity and opportunity ebb, Greeks [meaning the forces of the Right backed by Wall Street] have every reason to look to the [Greek] military as a solution for the economic and political problems that neither German eyeshades nor parliamentary negotiations seem able to solve."

NOTE: Obviously, Poulos - as a journalist for Forbes Magazine - is speaking from the perspective of the American financial elites when he identifies the "Greeks" as supporters of the Right (see quote above).

Captain America to the rescue

Poulos, continuing in the vein of a spokesman for Wall Street, goes on to say:

"The state of play in Europe is straightforward. Greece is very likely to become a FAILED STATE ..."

NOTE: Referring to Greece as a "FAILED STATE" if it refuses to go along with Wall Street's austerity program is the necessary precedent for injecting American military power into Greece to "stabilize" the country, which means, bringing the Greek population to heel under the boot of the American military.

Poulos conclude:

"European anxiety, international markets, and the force of media-fueled public opinion ensure that neither the Euro nor the EU can survive an unanswered Greek implosion."

POULOS'S STUPIDITY

Poulos - like the FRANCOPHILE he is  - goes on to say that the only country that can prevent a Greek implosion is France; but he finishes by saying -

"The only country ... that can lead a coalition capable of imposing order on the chaos to come is now led by a man for whom such leadership is deliriously out of character" - meaning the new socialist president of France, Francois Hollande.

Poulos is correct when he says that Hollande would never - under any circumstances - countenance the use of the French military in Greece against fellow-socialists, the same voting constituency that elected him president of France; the same voting constituency that wants France also to withdraw from the brutal tyranny of Wall Street - a tyranny epitomized (at least in Europe) by Angela Merkel and the gnomes of Frankfurt, which are little more than hideous little sycophants for the Mavens of Wall Street. 

Poulos is also correct in believing that France could expect NO help from its EU counterparts; and Poulos is correct again in thinking that France could NOT count on German military assistance, given the European aversion for the use of German military might anywhere on the continent of Europe.

The wicked gnomes of Frankfurt: Deutsche Bank in Frankfurt

But he is UTTERLY wrong in believing that the French army - acting alone under any conceivable scenario - possesses the military power to end a civil war in Greece. The French army is nothing more than a hollow shell with no substance. The fact is, according to the Institute for National Strategic Studies, the French military has been downsizing for more than twenty years under the impress of budgetary constraints and a deep aversion by the French people for the military. The result has been:

"A hollowed-out military with no real capability for sustained warfare on any level." [Again, please see our articles, "America versus Europe" and "Reducing Europe to the Status of Greece in the Days of Rome."]


SETTING THE STAGE FOR THE GOG /
MAGOG WAR AND THE TRIBULATION

Quite obviously, what is occurring not only in the Middle East and Central Asia, but now in Europe, is the final maneuvering for the Gog / Magog War and the Tribulation Period. [Please see Chapter IX of the New Antipas Papers, "The Course and Character of the Last Days,"]

Europe is being maneuvered into its final form prior to the emergence of the antiChrist - a ten nation confederation that is able to maintain its unity only under the heels of an American HEGEMON. [Please see Chapter XV of the New Antipas Papers, "The Gog / Magog War."]

If you don't see what is happening - and the centrality of the American super-state in all of this - you have only yourself to blame; and it can truly be said of you:

"For this people's heart is waxed gross, And their ears are dull of hearing, And their eyes they have closed; Lest, haply they should perceive with their eyes, And hear with their ears, And understand with their heart, And should turn again, And I should heal them." (Acts 28:27)

America rules the world

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God bless you all!

S.R. Shearer
Antipas Ministries

***

IN ADDITION, WE URGE YOU TO DOWNLOAD THE NEW ANTIPAS PAPERS, PRINT THEM OUT YOURSELF, AND STUDY THEM CAREFULLY; SHARE THEM WITH YOUR FRIENDS.

YOU MAY DOWNLOAD THEM FREE!

***

FINALLY, WE URGE YOU TO DOWNLOAD AND PRINT OUT THE FLYER WE SENT TO YOU RECENTLY.

YOU MAY DOWNLOAD THE FLYER HERE

Then make copies and take these copies out to the campuses where you live; pass them out; OR if that seems too "daring" for you right now, post them on telephone poles, the sides of buildings, on campus bulletin boards; post them in union halls, in the neighborhoods of the poor and downtrodden, near employment offices, wherever you can.


Once again, we URGE you to read (or re-read):

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APPENDIX 1
THE DETERIORATION OF
GERMAN / GREEK RELATIONS

By: Daily Mail Reporter

Greek anger with the way they believe Germany [acting as the agent of the American New World Order System] has taken over their economy is boiling over on the country's streets.

In recent days, protesters have burned German flags and defaced the Bank of Greece's headquarters to make it look like the Bank of Berlin.

German chancellor Angela Merkel has also been depicted in Nazi uniform on the front page of  the right-wing newspaper Democracy above a headline alluding to Auschwitz.

Nazi! German chancellor Angela Merkel has been depicted as Hitler henchman in Greek newspaper Democracy.


Anger: Protesters have burned German flags during demonstrations against austerity measures to which the Greek government has been forced to succumb.

The backlash has been provoked by Germany's role [again, acting as the agent of the Wall Street] in driving through painful measures to stop Greece's debt crisis from spiraling even further out of control.

Greece believes the Germans keep changing the requirements needed to access a 130billion euro tranche of bailout funds.

This week it was told it had to cut an extra 325million euros from its budget and a meeting, where it was due to be told it would receive the bailout cash, was cancelled at the last minute.

The satirical protests, which have been followed with violent riots, compare the German government with the Nazis who occupied the country in the Second World War.

Attack: A street poster in Greece has depicted Angela Merkel in a Nazi uniform with a swastika surrounded by the EU stars. The accompanying words describe her as a 'public nuisance'.


Satirical: Cartoons appearing in Greek newspapers have drawn comparisons with the Nazis.

Newspaper cartoons present modern-day German officials dressed in Third Reich regalia, and Greek government officials who agree to belt-tightening moves as 'Sieg Heil' saluters.

German visitors flocking to ancient tourist sites are also being met with a hostile welcome from some Greeks.

Berlin's interference has revived historical enmities and evoked comparisons to the massive destruction of Greece at the hands of Hitler's Germany more than 65 years ago.

Scrawled: Graffiti on the Bank of Greece's HQ in Athens calls it the Bank of Berlin, in reference to the belief that Germany is now in control of the country


Clear-up: A worker repairs the Bank of Greece sign which was splattered with red and black paint during rioting in Athens

Germany occupied Greece from 1941 to 1944 and, despite the old West Germany helping in no small part to rebuild the conquered land's economy, relations have never really recovered.

In 1957 Greek authorities detained Maximilian Merten, the former German wartime military administrator of the northern city of Thessaloniki.

He was later tried for war crimes and sentenced to 25 years in prison.

But he was quietly released soon after because, as archives opened in 1990 revealed, the Greeks freed him in return for securing economic co-operation with West Germany.

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APPENDIX 2
AMERICAN INTERVENTION IN THE
GREEK CIVIL WAR OF 1946 - 1949

By: Michael McClintock

Leftist fighter in the Greek Civil War: Throughout the war, the over-whelming majority of the Greek people supported the socialist forces of the Greek insurrection. The BLOODY intervention of the US military in the conflict on behalf of the Greek military is the only thing that prevented Greece from going over to the socialists.


NOTE: The belief by some that the United States would ever cede control of Greece to socialist forces is ABSURD. The United States has spent far too much blood and treasure in preventing this in the past, from its BRUTAL intervention in the Greek Civil War of 1946 to 1949 to its innumerable interventions on behalf of various Greek military governments since then.

The Greek Civil War of 1946-1949 has been characterized as "the formal proclamation of the cold war" between the "Free World...  and the forces of communism." The U.S. intervention in the civil war was the first counterinsurgent campaign of the Cold War. The U.S. Army Group Greece (USAGG) was established as part of the American Mission for Aid to Greece on 14 April 1947. The Aid to Greece and Turkey Bill, Public Law 75, the fruit of Truman's "containment" speech, authorized what was then the War Department to send military advisers to Greece, and required of Greece free access to U.S. personnel. The first personnel of USAGG, intended primarily to assess military assistance needs, reached Athens on 24 May, with a complement of forty military and twenty civilian personnel in place by 31 July. The first shipload of American military supplies arrived on 2 August. The USAGG was replaced by a full military advisory establishment, the Joint United States Military Advisory and Planning Group (JUSMAPG) on 31 December 1947. From that time, U.S. Army advisers went into the field with combat forces with a mandate to provide "AGGRESSIVE assistance."

The actual numbers of Americans involved on the ground in the Greek Civil War were not released to the public or to Congress at the time. Moreover, a 1961 White House paper on the Greek conflict suggests a deliberate concealing of the level and intimacy of the American military involvement.'' The State Department's second report to Congress reported that the Mission to Greece itself had grown within two years to over "100 military personnel, 220 civilians in the economic mission, 100 diplomatic and intelligence officers," and 80 administrative officers." The 1961 White House report gave rather larger figures, reporting personnel levels at the peak period at about 1,500, some 800 of whom were military personnel attached to the military mission. The same report quantifies assistance by the United States as having totaled $723.6 million ($198.4 military) "for the critical years 1946-48 and an additional $362 million ($158.7 military) for 1949," although the exact proportion of military to economic aid was unclear: "It is very difficult, however, to state just what resources we contributed, or how much economic aid was devoted to counter-guerrilla activity."

The 1961 report stressed as essential to the campaign's success the almost total command of the operation by Americans and the presence of advisers on combat operations conditions that would remain at the top of the agendas of American counterinsurgents from Vietnam to El Salvador. Although JUSMAPG was originally limited to supply and training in the use of new weaponry, under General James Van Fleet, appointed to head the military group in February 1948, "its mission was broadened to include training and operations." As one analyst has observed, Van Fleet became "the de facto senior tactical officer of the Greek National Army," with the American military group "insisting that all its recommendations be carried out fully and speedily."

NOTE: General A. Van Fleet was an evangelical Christian who genuinely thought of himself as a "Christian Warrior" in the service of "God's Redeemer Nation" (i.e., the United States). It was in this vein that he distributed New Testaments to the Greek army with a preface that supported America's anti-Communist crusade in Greece as "God's will."  Van Fleet was a top counterinsurgency consultant to the Secretary of the Army on guerrilla warfare. He was also an outspoken critic of President Kennedy's handling of the Bay of Pigs Invasion, and was closely connected to many of the shadowy figures within the intelligence community who were later implicated in the Kennedy and Martin Luther King assassinations. [Please see our articles, "Remembering Dachau While Pondering the Fate of the CIA's Prisoners Scattered around the World;" please also see, "MK-Ultra: The Search for the Manchurian Candidate, A Study of the Mindset behind Today's New World Order" and "Conspiracy Theories;" please also see our article on the MLK assassination in "Greed, Avarice, and the Coming Dictatorship."]

The Greek armed forces in early 1948, as the American military mission began operations, numbered some 120,000 and were organized in a combination of conventional and mountain infantry divisions, British organized commando Wits (known by their Greek initials as LOK), and territorial forces known as the National Defense Corps (sometimes called the National Guard). A National Civil Guard had been set up immediately after the fall of Germany but had been replaced by a national police force (or gendarmerie) in November 1945. The gendarmerie, which operated in all areas except large towns that had their own police services had, at war's end, some 20,000 men but "had fallen into disrepute through continuing to function under the German occupation authorities." A British Police and Prisons Mission took charge of the "purification" of the force: Within a month of the British landings, the "reconstituted" - but largely unchanged - gendarmerie was fully operational. The reorganization of the Greek army was considered complete by May 1948. Force levels rose to some 145,000 regulars in 1949.

The American military strategy was largely conventional: to pin down Democratic Army forces [i.e., the socialists] with massed troops and overwhelming firepower, and systematically to clear the adversary from mountain redoubts. Commando forces - some 2,000 men in all - were reserved for "raiding, deep penetration patrolling and as an air mobile strategic reserve." Massive operations in 1948 combined artillery and airpower (including strafing, high-explosive bombardment, and napalm) with infantry sweeps. Air power in Operation CROWN, a June-August 1948 offensive against Democratic Army forces in the Grammos Mountains, involved the "not-always-Greek pilots of the Greek Air Force" [i.e., Americans] in over 2,400 offensive sorties as well as 750 reconnaissance and 180 supply missions.

The counterinsurgency campaign included some aspects that would become familiar in later campaigns (and which had antecedents in British and French colonial doctrine, and in the United States' own experience as a neo-colonial power). Most significant of these was the forcible relocation, or clearance of the population from certain areas to create a "no-man's-land."

British counterinsurgent Edgar O' Ballance described the measure:

"Under American insistence energetic counter-measures were taken ... and one of the most effective of these was the systematic removal of whole sections of the population. This was more far-reaching than is usually realized. It removed the people, it demarcated a "front line", it prevented "back infiltration" and it caused a blanket of silence to descend. Without to support and succor him, the guerrilla is a fish out of water; he might as well be fighting in a foreign and hostile country."

"Re-settlement Camps" where Greek villagers were forcibly "resettled;" Queen Fredericka of Greece, who helped open many of these camps under the false rubric of "humanity."

A second innovation was the system of the Greek National Defense Corps, a kind of territorial militia organized for defense duties at the local level: As a classic example of counter-organization for counterinsurgency, its recruitment criteria were political. The militia armed and mobilized population sectors predisposed to combat real or suspected communists. The system evolved from an earlier right-wing paramilitary force which was based largely on the wartime Greek Democratic National League (EDES). This had been a principal vehicle of the "White Terror" of 1946-1947, and the disbanding of the ad hoc "home guard" was a principal demand of the Left prior to the outbreak of open civil war. A 1947 New York Times article reported the creation of the new force in the context of Prime Minister Sophoulis's September 1947 pledge to call a "national rally" to "exterminate" the guerrillas if they did not hand in their arms.

NOTE: Very obviously, what we have being proposed here are American-sponsored death squads. The evolution of the use of death squads by the American New World Order System can be clearly traced from Van Fleet's use of them in Greece, to General McChristian's use of them in South America and Vietnam, from there to the use of them by Bill Casey during the Contra Wars, and finally to their present use in the Middle East and Central Asia by Generals Boykin, Petraeus and McChrystal as detailed in our article, "Remembering Dachau While Pondering the Fate of the CIA's Prisoners Scattered around the World;" [We URGE you to see our article on the hideous use of death squads by the American super-state, "The Horror of John Dimitri Negroponte and Everything He Represents."]

The paramilitary militia system persisted after the collapse of National People's Liberation Army (ELAS) forces in 1949, to be cited later by U.S. counterinsurgents as a model for the "counter-organization" of the civil population for grass-roots population control and counter-guerrilla action. Lt. Col. John McCuen, in The Art of Counter-Revolutionary War (1966), cites the post-war incarnation of the National Defense Corps (Tagmata Ethnikes Asphaleias) as a model for local self-defense, military training, and political indoctrination:

"We have had few near-ideal examples of effective counter-revolutionary strategy, but the TEA organization is one of the best. It seems worthy of close emulation by other countries threatened with revolutionary action."

A key characteristic of the system was the interpenetration and close control of the system by the regular army, a shared feature of later paramilitary systems such as El Salvador's ORDEN and the civil self-defense organizations set up in Latin America, Vietnam, and the Philippines since the early 1960s. The TEA's model recruitment procedure was similar to that of El Salvador's ORDEN [an infamous Central American death squad] and current civil defense systems employed a system of vetting personnel according to their political proclivities and of keeping costs down: remuneration came in the form of patronage jobs and surplus commodities. The incorporation of ex-conscripts into the system provided a means of taking advantage of military training in the long-term, as well as retaining a means of ongoing supervision of trained personnel.

The political dimension went beyond recruitment criteria; although a form of active military reserve, TEA also had the characteristics of a paramilitary political organization:

"A significant element of the TEA training is political as part of the Greek Army's 'enlightenment' campaign. Officers get special courses to prepare them for this responsibility. Not only do the officers indoctrinate their men, but they often travel through their areas of responsibility giving speeches to the villagers... As a result the Greeks look upon the TEA organization as an important means of influence, commitment, and control of the population."

At base, however, the political role was superimposed on a political-policing role of intelligence, vigilance, and repression. TEA units were armed with rifles, submachine guns, and light machine guns.

In late 1948, the Democratic Army leadership changed from a strategy of guerrilla warfare to employ the conventional tactics of open confrontation and battle in an apparent move to achieve a victory before the inflow of American arms could turn the tide (or the Tito-Stalin rift led to a total rupture between its leaders and Yugoslavia, which had hitherto provided sanctuary). The strategic shift proved catastrophic. In a final campaign in August 1949, the Democratic Army confronted the national army's combination of infantry, artillery, and air power "in heavy, positional combat" in the Grammos and Vitsi ranges, and after six days of fighting it was routed. Although many guerrillas fled across the border into Albania, the military victory effectively ended the Greek Civil War.

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