Daniel G. Dupont who edits Inside Defense, an online news service, from Washington, D.C., reports:
The Institute for Emerging Defense Technologies at Pennsylvania State University's Applied Research Laboratory - the Penn State lab that has been investigating nonlethal weapons for some years now - has concluded that such calmative gases could work safely.
Researchers led by Joan Lakoski, now at the University of Pittsburgh, reviewed the medical literature on pharmaceutical agents that produce "a calm state." Ideally, according to the investigators, an effective calmative would be easy to administer and be adaptable for use in a variety of forms. The Penn State team declared in an October 2000 report that the wide variety of drug classes and specific agents that they studied –
The Penn State authors identified many compounds that have a "high potential for consideration" as nonlethal agents:
But they singled out several major classes, two of which are convulsants and "selected drugs of abuse," including certain "club drugs." They also pointed to two drugs deserving immediate attention:
It's with this in mind that we hear that U.S. troops guarding prisoners at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba are using a calming gas.
The legal status of such gases is unclear. Under the treaty prohibiting chemical weapons, to which the U.S. belongs, its use would be prohibited in war, but not in" law enforcement." The U.S. insists that prisoners at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba are not governed by international laws such as the Geneva Convention.
As evidence of this allegation, an article in the London newspaper The Guardian quoted a Pakistani teacher named Abdul Razaq, recently released from Guantanamo, as saying that when a few inmates became unruly, guards "sprayed them with a calming gas, tied them up and took them to the punishment block".
Interestingly, there exists numerous examples of "calming gases" throughout history. One such gas is the gas that animated the Oracle at Delphi. EmmaGattie writes:
The Oracle at Delphi is but one ancient example of "calming gases" capable of producing trances. Moreover, these trances very often incapacitated the Pythia and all those who surrounded her, and gives evidence that they were (are) more than capable of incapacitating large populations – A FACT THAT IS FRIGHTENING WHEN ONE THINKS OF THE HARM (INCAPACITATION) THAT COULD BE DONE TO A LARGE POPULATION IF THEY WERE SPRAYED FROM A PLANE.
THE CREATION OF A "CALMING AGENT" THAT CAN BE SPRAYED OVER LARGE CITIES IS PRECISELY THE "MAGIC BULLET" OF POPULATION CONTROL FOR WHICH THE ELITES HAVE BEEN SEARCHING FOR YEARS – AND THERE IS GROWING EVIDENCE THAT THEY HAVE FOUND IT, AND MAY SOON DEPLOY IT ON UNRULY POPULATIONS.
OURS IS A SOCIAL SYSTEM
During periods of extreme crisis, ruling class elites and the technocratic "wizards of Armageddon" who serve them harbor a not-so-secret longing for "magic bullets" that will put the populations over which they rule into zombie-like trances.
Antifascist Calling explains that for six decades, the Pentagon and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) have explored ways to harness biochemical substances as incapacitating weapons of war. During 1977 congressional hearings, the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence published material on "Project MK-ULTRA, The CIA's Program of Research in Behavioral Modification." [Please see our articles, "MK-Ultra: the Search for the Manchurian Candidate," "The Drug Epidemic, Viruses, Ebola and AIDS: It's Not What You Think" and "Morgellons Disease: a Warning of Things to Come."]
It is generally believed that these programs which were purportedly developed as a means to gain "control" over the minds of "enemy agents" or "target populations," were quashed in the late 1970s.
However, Antifascist Calling reports that –
"... unfortunately, this is not the case ... Under the broad heading of "calmatives," such research continues to this day. The now-defunct Sunshine Project defined calmatives as,
'... chemical or biological agents with sedative, sleep-inducing or similar psychoactive effects. Chemical calmative weapons such as BZ (3-quinuclidinyl benzilate, a compound related to scopolamine) were developed during the Cold War. Proponents of calmatives are creating a new and alarming legal ambiguity surrounding their use. ...
'The US Department of Defense (DoD) arguments imply the creation of two loopholes in the Chemical Weapons Convention: the possible definition of psychoactive substances as riot control agents, and a distinction between "Military Operations Other Than War" [MOOTW] and armed conflicts. In the latter, DoD argues that even toxic chemicals would be of operational utility'." ("Non-Lethal Weapons Research in the U.S.: Calmatives and Malodorants," The Sunshine Project, Backgrounder Series #8, July 2001) [For information on the Sunshine Project, please see our articles, "Emerging Technologies, Genetic Engineering and Biological Weapons" and "6 Creepy New Weapons the Police and the Military Use to Disarm Unarmed People."]
In other words, while deploying these agents in the "battlespace" is prohibited under the Chemical Weapons Convention, THEIR USE ON CIVILIAN POPULATIONS DURING MOOTW, "... IF CLASSIFIED AS RIOT AGENTS, IS ACCEPTABLE."
Benzodiazepines like Valium, serotonin-reuptake inhibitors like Prozac, and opiate derivatives like morphine, fentanyl, and carfentanyl are being used on restive populations.
Neil Davison, a researcher at the University of Bradford's Disarmament Research Center (BDRC) writes:
"From a military perspective, specific characteristics of such agents have been seen as follows:
- Highly potent (an extremely low dose is effective) and logistically feasible.
- Able to produce their effects by altering the higher regulatory activity of the central nervous system.
- Of a duration of action lasting hours or days, rather than of a momentary or fleeting action.
- Not seriously dangerous to life except at doses many times the effective dose.
- Not likely to produce permanent injury in concentrations which are militarily effective.
"However, contemporary definitions emphasize rapid onset of action ... characteristics which reflect the current preoccupation with ... policing requirements. Generally for reasons of politics and public relations rather than accuracy these weapons have also been referred to as "CALMATIVES" and "advanced riot control agents". (Neil Davison, Bradford Disarmament Research Centre, 'Off the Rocker' and 'On the Floor': The Continued Development of Biochemical Incapacitating Weapons, Bradford Science and Technology Report No. 8, August 2007) [emphasis added]
"Broadly speaking agents were colloquially divided into 'OFF THE ROCKER' agents having psychotropic effects and 'ON THE FLOOR' agents causing incapacitation through effects on other physiological processes."
NOTE: Psychotropic agents ("OFF THE ROCKER" agents) cause delirium; incapacitation drugs ("ON THE FLOOR" agents) cause paralysis; the extent of the delirium and the paralysis depends on the dosage.
This is hardly an academic exercise considering that the Pentagon's Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Directorate (JNLWD) is carrying-out on-going experimentation into what it euphemistically calls "Human Effects Research" to develop an "Advanced Total Body Model (ATBM) for predicting the effects of non-lethal impacts:
"The JNLWP non-lethal human effects community has begun to increase its focus on improving the characterization and quantification of ... the effectiveness of [calmative agent]. In other words, researchers are attempting to better answer the question of how well the human response relates to desired mission outcomes. This area of research is critical to ensuring that the end user will get reliable, repeatable ... results." ("Human Effects Research," Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Program, April 10, 2008)
Interestingly, there exists a so-called "living laboratory" on the effectiveness of calming agents on display during the October 2002 Moscow Theatre siege: Under "real world" conditions, 50 Chechen terrorists and 100 hostages were killed when Russian special forces pumped an aerosolized fentanyl derivative through the ventilation system of a theater in Moscow after the Chechen terrorists took over 700 hostages there. A KGB-developed "psycho-chemical gas" known as Kolokol-1 was the suspected calmative used during the rescue. Kolokol-1 has been described by medical experts as being 1000 times more potent than morphine.
While it's true that 100 hostages were killed by "Kolokol-1," 600 hundred other hostages were saved and the hostage-takers were incapacitated. Thus, it can be said, the gas worked. It had a success rate of 6 to 1.
When a normal dose of fentanyl enters the brain, it is quickly redistributed throughout the body and produces a debilitating trance followed by paralysis.
Russia hasn't been alone in looking at fentanyl derivatives as incapacitating agents. In 1987, the U.S. National Institute of Justice (NIJ) established a so-called "Less-Than-Lethal Technology Program," and awarded its first contract to the U.S. Army's Chemical Research, Development, and Engineering Center (CREDEC, [rebranded as the Edgewood Chemical Biological Center [ECBC)] ) at the Aberdeen Proving Ground, "for a feasibility assessment aimed at delivering an incapacitating agent.
It's been reported that fentanyl derivatives that resulted from this work have been used as incapacitating agents for civilian police work. Davison reports that what the government has done is re-invent fentanyl as a riot control agent. Through these kinds of slight-of-hand word tricks the government has circumvented the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention and has allowed it place these kinds of incapacitating agents in the same category as irritant riot control agents (RCA) such as pepper spray, which is absurd.
Fentanyl is dangerous enough to have been used as a murder weapon. Fentanyl abuse is a growing problem nationwide. Fentanyl is often sold illegally, and Fentanyl abusers will smoke or chew the patches to get high. Illegal Fentanyl use has been responsible for over 1,000 deaths in the United States.
The legal use of Fentanyl can also be extremely dangerous, and legally prescribed Fentanyl patches have caused a significant number of injuries and deaths.
The anemic response by American healthcare professionals to the use by the government of these gases and drugs at Guantánamo Bay and transnational "BLACK SITES" for devilish "national security" considerations is appalling. [Please see our article, "Remembering Dachau While Pondering the Fate of the CIA's Prisoners Scattered around the World."]
Indeed, it's not to much to say that many doctors, nurses and psychologists -- military officers and/or "outsourced" contractors like their Argentine and Chilean colleagues during the "dirty war" period of the 1970s and 1980s -- have been complicit in the "transformation" drugs into "tactical" weapons. [Please see our articles, "The Evil in Our Midst," "Witchcraft and the Paranormal" and "The Ghosts and Phantoms that Lurk behind the CIA."]
According to a Pentagon report associated with the JNLWD (Department of Defense Non-Lethal Weapons Program) potential military uses for these so-called "CALMING AGENTS" included "meeting US and NATO objectives in -
Military crowd control
-- whereas law enforcement applications cited were -
Civilian crowd control
Davison concludes ominously that -
"... different chemical agents would be required for different scenarios with '... different mechanisms of action, duration, of effects and different depths of 'CALM'."
While the report doesn't specify a delivery system, Davison writes that the authors envisage a variety of delivery routes including -
The report concludes that drugging municipal water systems to suppress "anti-social behaviors" such as a general strike or mass antiwar protests, and achieve their goal of effecting "different depths of 'CALM' promises great advantages, as does the use of aerosol sprays"!
The report goes on to say:
"The 'time is right' with respect to considering pharmaceutical agents ... as a new class of 'non-lethal' weapons."
Currently under development are programs that employ unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) as a delivery system for calmatives as well as other so-called "non-lethal" weapons. With tens of billions of dollars invested by the Pentagon in UAVs since the 1990s, there has been growing interest in the use of UAVs as dispersal platforms. One 1998 study concluded that a "UAV-dispenser system could be used with any UAV with a 40 lb or more payload capability."
The JNLWD has funded development of an "unmanned platform" to "spray liquid payloads" by remote control.
The JNLWD has funded development of an "unmanned platform" to "spray liquid payloads" by remote control at the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). According to Davison,
"SwRI engineers have developed a computer-controlled unmanned powered Para foil (UPP) equipped with a payload that dispenses liquid spray while in flight. Developed for the Marine Corps Non-Lethal Directorate, the system is intended to provide non-lethal crowd control options for the U.S. military [and civilian police forces]. The UPP was fitted with a pan-tilt camera to continually locate the impact point of the liquid spray. Using computer-assisted flight modes and the camera image, a remote operator can direct the UPP over a target at low altitude and release the spray."
Similarly, Raytheon was "tasked" with "assessing the feasibility" of delivering "non-lethal" payloads, including chemical agents from its Extended Range Guided Munition. Another "major recommendation" was for "further development of unmanned vehicles to deliver 'non-lethal' weapons including chemical agents at long distance with greater accuracy," Davison reports.
Just this week, The Guardian reported a new "tool" appeared in the Pentagon's "non-lethal" weapons arsenal. The U.S. Army's XM1063 155mm howitzer launched projectile is capable of scattering "152 small non-explosive sub munitions over a 1-hectare area; as each parachutes down, it sprays a chemical agent."
The U.S. Army's XM1063 155mm howitzer
The Guardian reported a new "tool" appeared in the Pentagon's "non-lethal" weapons arsenal. The U.S. Army's XM1063 155mm howitzer launched projectile is capable of scattering "152 small non-explosive sub munitions over a 1-hectare area; as each parachutes down, it sprays a chemical agent."
Designed by General Dynamics for the U.S. Army's Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) at Picatinny Arsenal, the XM1063 is touted as the latest in a series of "non-lethals" which will "suppress populations."
The Guardian reports,
"Testing of the XM1063 was completed successfully last year and it is now due for production."
Antifascist Calling concludes:
"The democratic Republic which most Americans have long-cherished is rapidly falling by the wayside as economic collapse and endless wars fuel moves by the U.S. ruling class to complete constructing their corporatist police state. It is within this context, that "calmative" weapon technologies arises: both as metaphor and method for an ever-more sinister rebranding of fascism."
God bless all of you.
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